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22 Cards in this Set

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Kidney: functions (5)
Regulation of:
-H2O, electrolyte, acid-base balance
-blood osmolality, electrolyte composition
-arterial blood pressure
Excretion of metabolic wastes, etc.
Secretion of Hormones
Kidney: 4 processes in urine production
-plasma filtration
-tubular reabsorption
-tubular secretion
-concentration
Functional unit of kidney. Parts (4)
Nephron:
-glomerulus/renal corpuscle
-proximal convoluted tubule
-loop of Henle
-distal convoluted tubule
Through what vessels does blood enter and leave the nephron
afferent/efferent arterioles
Bowman's capsule
-cuplike sac enclosing glomerulus
-visceral layer is comprised of podocytes
Proximal convoluted tubule:
important histological features (2)
misc
-long, lumens seem more irregular than in DCT
-brush border, mitochondria (lots)
-reabsorbes about 85% of amino acids and 100% of glucose
Loop of Henle
-located in hypertonic (salty) medulla
-simple squamous?
-concentrates urine
Distal convoluted tubule
-no brush border. Histologically, lumens seem more irregular
-reabsorbs Na+
-influenced by aldosterone
-secretes K+ and ammonium
juxta-glomerular apparatus
-formed by DCT and afferent arteriole at vascular pole of Bowman's capsule
-involved in monitoring and regulating blood pressure through renin-angiotensin mechanism
collecting tubules
-further concentrate urine
-usually waterproof
-when influenced by ADH will reabsorb H20, upping blood volume/pressure
vasa recta
-long, straight cappilaries
-maintain hypertonicity of medulla
Ureter
-carries urine from calyces to the bladder
-transitional epith
-water-tight, flexible
extension of medullary tissue up into the cortex
medullary ray
Lobule
medullary ray, collecting duct, all associated nephrons
Lobe
pyramid, cortical material
Functions of kidney:
Glomerulus
PCT
LofH
DCT & juxtaglomerular apparatus
collecting tubule
collecting duct
G: filtration
PCT: reabsorption of H2O, Na+, glucose, AAs
LofH: concentration
DCT&JGA: Na+ reabsorption, reg. blood pressure
CT: acid/base balance, phosphate
CD: concentration, excretion
mesangial cells:
Intraglomelular
Extraglomelular
Intra:
-supporting cells function in filtration (& structural support, phagocytosis)
Extra:
-form juxtaglomerular apparatus (with asc. LofH (macula densa) and efferent arteriole)
Podocytes
-create intimate bond with endothelium through shared BM
-interdigitate across BM, leaving small "filtration gaps"
-small molecs such as H2O, glucose, ionic salts can pass out of capillaries (?), forming ultrafiltrate
What type of capillaries are found in the kidneys?
Fenestrated. Allows easy passage out
What shares a common basement membrane in the glomerulus?

What does this BM do?
-podocytes, endothelium

-limits what can leave through charge and size filtration
Where is renin located?
stretch receptors located in the smooth muscle surrounding the arteriole (only at the juxtaglomerular apparatus?)
2 poles of the glomeulus
-vasular pole
-urinary pole