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60 Cards in this Set

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6 basic layers of the digestive tube
1) epithelium - usually simple columnar
2) Lamina propria - loose connective tissue
3) Muscularis mucosae - smooth muscle
4) Submucosa - dense connective tissue
5) Circular smooth muscle
6) Longitudinal smooth muscle
Plexuses that innervate the D.S.
-myenteric
-submucosal (mesenteric)
Esophagus:
epithelium
muscle
-stratified squamous
-skeletal in upper/smooth in lower portion
Stomach muscle layers:
type
orientation
-smooth muscle
-runs in many directions to churn food
Gastric glands (pits) make (4)
-hydrochloric acid
-pepsinogen
-intrinsic factor
-gastrin (?)
Intrinsic factor
-secreted by gastric glands (parietal cells)
-for absorption of B12
Surface cells
-in stomach
-synth and secrete mucous (?)
What is responsible for auto-regulation of stomach secretions?
Enteroendocrine cells
Brunner's glands
-in duodenum (ant. to major duodenal papilla)
-make bicarb (to neutralize stomach acid)
-in submucosa
What increases surface area in the intestines?
villi, circular folds (plicae)
What process occurs in the Crypts of Lieberkuhn
-cell division (to renew epithelium)
What secretes lysozyme in small intestines?
Paneth cells
Where are lymph nodes located in the small intestines?
Lamina Propria
Lacteals
lymph vessels in sm. intestines concerned w/ fat absorption
Sm. Intestines have strong/weak muscle layers with prominent ______ plexuses
strong; myenteric
Primary job of large intestines
water reabsorption
Large intestines contain (or don't contain):
structures
secreting cells
muscle
innervation
-no villi, only pits
-mucin secreting cells in epithelium
-strong muscle layers
-prominent myenteric plexuses
Major exocrine glands associated with digestive tract (4)
-salivary glands
-liver
-gall bladder
-pancreas
function of salivary glands (2)
-digestion
-protection of oral cavity
hepatic portal system:
tributaries
blood flow
bile

(?)
-gastric, superior mesenteric, splenic
-arterial and venous blood runs into liver sinusoids
-bile flows through canaliculi between hepatocytes
Liver macrophages
Kupffer cells
What type of endothelium is found in the liver?
discontinuous, fenestrated endothelium
Space of Disse
between endothelium and hepatocyte surfaces

(?)
What is the liver's main function
detoxification of noxious substances
Gall bladder
-Stores bile
-concentrates bile
-releases it into small intestines
Which two organs in the abdomen have both endocrine and exocrine function?
Liver, pancreas
Digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas
proteases, lipases, nucleases

(also glucagon, insulin, somatostatin?<--endocrine)
The mucosa is made up of what?
-epithelium
-lamina propria
-muscularis mucosa
Enteric nervous system is found sandwiched between which layers
circular muscle layer/longitudinal muscle layer
There is no serosa surrounding the GI tract where
the esophagus
The epithelium changes from what to what, and where
stratified squamous (esophagus) -> simple columner (stomach)
Where are villi found
small intesines (duo., jej, & ileum)
Stomach:
folds
sphincters
-rugae
-cardiac, pyloric
Cells in a gastric pit
-neck cells: secrete mucus (protection)
-parietal cells: secrete HCl and intrinsic factor (binds Vita B12)
-Enteroendocrine cells: secrete gastrin (acts on parietal cells upping HCl)
-Chief cells: secrete preenzyme pepsinogen (hydrolized into pepsin)
Where in the stomach are the gastric pits missing a type of cell?
Which cell are they missing?
-bottom 1/3 by pyloric sphinctor, also by cardiac sphinctor
-missing parietal cells (HCl)
circular folds
(aka)
-aka plicae circularis
-fold in wall of submucosa
Which region has the most goblet cells?
Large intestines. Crypts are almost all goblet. Goblet mount increases throughout small intestines
Villi:
lipid absorption (path)
nutrient absorption
-lacteal, located in center. Packaged as chylomicrons
lacteal->lymphatics->cisterna chyli->thoracic duct->left subclavian
-nutrients are absorbed into blood vessels
Crypts of Lieberkuhn:
cells
-Paneth cells: lysosyme (antibacterial)
enteroendocrine cells: hormones (eg. secretin, cholecystikinin)
Secretin
-in crypts of Lieberkuhn.
-stim's water-bicarb rich secretion from pancreas
CCK
cholecystikinin:
-stim's release of bile into gut
-(contracts gall bladder, relaxes sphincter)
The enteric nerve cells found in the wall of the GI tract contain what kind of nerve fibers?
-post-ganglionic sympathetic fibers
-pre-ganglionic parasymp fibers, and cell bodies of post-synaptic nerves
cholera effects
large intestines. Cells cannot dehydrate waste efficiently resulting in diarrhia
The lamina propria in the veriform appendix is very high in ____________
lymph tissue
taenia coli
three longitudinal bands of smooth muscle found in the large intestines
portal triad
-hepatic artery
-hepatic vein
-bile duct

-based on blood flow
Functions of the liver (5)
-stores and metabolizes nutrients
-maintains blood glucose
-clears blood of endotoxins, etc
-secretes plasma proteins
-excretes substances in bile
Flow of blood in liver
portal triad -> (through hepatocytes) -> central vein -> hepatic vein -> IVC
Liver acinis
-diamond of 2 portal triads and 2 central veins
-3 zones (depthwise). O2, nutrients and toxins decrease from zone 1 (outermost) to zone 3 (closest to central canal).
-level of toxins/necrosis of tissue can be compared between levels to determine toxicity
Hepatic lobule
?
Path of blood in hepatic lobule, starting from portal vein
portal vein -> interlobular vein -> sinusoid -> central venule -> sublobular vein -> collecting vein -> hepatic vein -> IVC
liver sinusoid
thin walled vessel
histological diff btw hepatic artery and a bile duct
-artery: simple squamous (and smooth muscle)

-bile duct: cuboidal epith.
Space of Disse
-in liver btw a hepatocyte and a sinusoid
-Contains blood plasma.
-Microvilli of hepatocytes extend into this space, allowing proteins and other plasma components from the sinusoids to be taken up by the hepatocytes
How does bile get from hepatocytes to bile duct
bile canaliculus, separated from blood by tight junctions
What kind of endothelium is the liver made up of?
sinusoidal
albumin
-made by hepatocytes (in liver)
-most abundant blood plasma protein
-regulates blood volume
acinar cells
-in pancreas
-secrete inactive enzymes: trypsin, chymotrypsin, etc. (?)
What makes up the major duodenal papilla?

What is important about the location of the papilla?
-bile duct, main pancreatic duct

-post to papilla becomes midgut
What layer is the gall bladder lacking?

How many layers of muscle does the stomach have?
-lamina propria

-3 (internal oblique layer - innermost layer)