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315 Cards in this Set

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A band
area containing thick filaments in the muscle cell; dark, contain actin and myosin
abdomen
abdominal
abdonimal cavity
contains the organs for digestion
abdonimal region
region of trunk bounded by the diaphragm and pelvis
abdonimopelvic cavity
contains the liver, gall bladder, stomach, spleen, large and small intestines, pancreas, urinary bladder and female reproductive system
abduction
appendages are drawn away from the body; to take away
acromial
shoulder
actin
protein component of microfilaments; forms thin filaments in skeletal muscles and produces contractions of all muscles through interaction with myosin
active transport
the movement of materials from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration with use of ATP
adduction
brings appendages closer to the body
adipose tissue
fat
adipocytes
fat cells derived from fibroblasts
adventitious bursae
bunion that results from wearing pointy shoes
amphiarthroses
slightly moveable joints; 2 types 1 that involves fibrocartilage and one that involved ligaments
amphiarthrosis
slightly independent movement
anaphase
phase where the chromatids of each chromosomes separate at the centromere. The chromosomes hen migrate to the opposite poles
anatomical position
toes pointed forward, arms straight at the side with the palms facing forward and fingers pointing donward
antebrachium (antebrachial)
forearm
antecubitis (antecubital)
front of the elbow
anterior
torwards the front
apocrine gland
sweat gland, found in the axillae, areolae, and groin; sweat plus fats and proteins; decomposition by bacteria makes a musky smell
areolar connective tissue (loose)
fascia; tissue found between muscles and between epithelium and other tissue; fibers elastin = thin; collagen - broad
arrector pili muscles
causes hairs to stand on end; contraction produces heat (goose bump)
articular capsule
joint's enclosure
articular cartilage
hyaline cartilage of the epiphyses; provide cushion between the epiphyese; serves as a sponge for synovial fluid
articulation
to join; when 2 bones join together
astrocyte
creates the blood brain barrier; prevent leakage; mop up excessive ions and neurotransmitters
auris or otic
ear
axilla (axillary)
armpit
ball-and-socket joint
most freely movable joint; able to achieve the entire range of movement including rotation, flexion, extension; and circumduction; upper arm and thigh bones articulating with the scapula and pelvic bones
bipolar neuron
have a single dendrite anda single axon with the cell body between them; rare; play role in relayng info concerning sight, smell, and hearing; not myelinated
blood
a protein rich fluid that suspends blood cells; liquid = plasma; contained in blood vessels; major transport tissue immune transort tissue
bony collar
blood vessels invade the cartilage and form
brachium (brachial)
arm
bucca (buccal)
cheek
bursa
pillow shaped packet of synovial fliud; found where either tendons, or ligaments rub against ther periosteum or dermis of the skin
calcaneus (calcaneal)
heal of the foot
canaliculi
provide the life line for waste and nutrient exchange
cancellous bone (spongy bone)
spongy bone, composed of a network of bony struts
capillary
act as minature filters, keep blood cells and proteins but loose watery part of plasma
cardiac muscle
heart muscle; has intercalated disks
carpus (carpal)
wrist
Cartilage
avascular; matric largely proteoglycans and GAGs; chondrocytes live in lacunae; territorial matrix around young chondrocytes
cell membrane
nuclear envelope
centrioles
Non-membranous organizer of cilia and cell division; provide the guiding structural frame work for the chromosomes to separate.
cephalon (Cephalic)
head
cerumen
ear wax
ceruminous gland
modified sweat glands in the external auditory canal
cervicus (cervical)
neck
chondrocytes
cells associated with cartilage
chromosome
bundles of DNA and protein
cilia
hair-like structures that move extracellular material across the cell’s surface. Like an automatic brush.
circumduction
moving an appendage in a circle
club hair
collagen
strong protein
connective tissue
fibrous matrix & ground system; spacious cellularity; provides basement membranes for epithelium; provides coverings for muscle and nervous tissue; moderately mitotic; tissue that provides support, protection, energy storage, transport and anatmical form
coronal ( frontal)
seperating the anterior side of the body from the posterior side
cranial cavity
vault which has walls composed of bones that houses the brain
crus (crural)
leg
cutaneous membrane
the skin
cuticle
single lyer of overlaying cells; external most layer
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm; begins with the separation of the cell membrane during anaphase and ends when the plasma membrane closes around the 2 daughter cells
cytoplasm
Everything in the cell, except the nucleus
cytoskeleton
protein scaffolding of the cell. Helps make its form
deep
below the surface
dense connective tissue irregular
dermis of the skin
dense connective tissue regular
tendons and ligaments
depression
lower
dermal papillae
projections from the dermis toward the epidermis
dermis
leather of the skin; contains fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and various white blood cells, collagen fibers (predominates) elastinand reticular fibers, nerves and blod vessels
desmosome
spot-welds; proteins that hold cells together in spots
diaphragm
principle muscle used for breathng; inferior to the thoracic cavity and superior to the abdominopelvic cavity
diaphysis
the long shaft of the bone
diathrosis
freely moveable joints;
diffusion (simple diffusion)
is the movement of particles from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration. Because small molecules and ions are in constant motion, no additional energy is required.
digits (digital)
phalanges; fingers/ toes
distal
farther from point of attachment
dorsal
on the back
dorsal cavity
holds the brain and the spial cord; divided into 2 minor cavities: cranial and spinal/verebral cavity
dorsum (dorsal)
eccrine gland
sweat gland; filtrate of blood; 99% water, NACL and other salts, urea, ammonia, and uric acic; acidity of sweat retards bacterial groth
elastic cartilage
elastic connective tissue
elastic arteries, lungs
elastin
thinner fibers; can stretch 150x its length w/o breaking
elevation
raise
ellipsoidal joint
requires both a concave and a convex surface; flexion, extension and circumduction are possible; 1st bone of the wrist and the metacarpophalangeal joints at the base of the fingers
endocytosis
When materials are taken into the cell
endothelium
ependymal cells
produces and circulate cerebral spinal fluid; found in the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord
epidermis
stratified squamous epithelium, keratinocytes, melanocytes, merkel cells, and langerhams
epiphyseal plate
lving cartilage separates the primary and secondary ossification centers; region of bone elongation; bone increases in width via periosteum
epiphyses
bony ends within the joint cavity; ends of bones
epithelial tissue (epithelium)
compact cellularity; junctional complexes, avascular, neural, highly mitotic; apical and basl surfaces (polar), basement membranes; tissues of linings, coverings, most filters and glands
eponychium
cuticle of nail
eversion
when the foot curls out laterally so that the little toe is up
extension
move our bodies or limbs as to increase the angle
facilitated diffusion
no extra energy is needed, but a protein is required. Gases and fats can enter or leave the cell anywhere they wish, but most substances must be taken into the cell via specialized channel, gated or carrier proteins
fascia
face
femur (femoral)
thigh
fibroblast
predominant cell type, respossible for collagen, eleastic and reticular fivers; ground substance
fibrocartilage
little ground substance, matrix dominated by by collagen fibers, absorbs shock
fibrous joint capsule
strong fabric that holds the joint in place; outer wall
filtration
small particles are separated from large ones.
flexion
move our bodies or limbs as to derease an angle
frontal (coronal) plane
divides the body from front (anterior) and back (posterior)
G0
Cells that can no longer divide
G1
initial growth phase or “gap” phase
G2
the cell prepares for cellular division
gap junction
zonula adherens and zonula occludens
gliding joint
found in the bony clusters or where movement is limited; bones travel over one another in 1 plane
gluteus
buttock
glycogen
storage of glucose in animals
golgi apparatus
Refinery of the cell. Receives partially completed materials from the endoplasmic reticula and packages them into vesicles for shipment to other parts of the cell and other parts of the body
gomphosis
a type of synarthosis; peg-in-hole joint;
gonadal
ground substance
fluid; connective tissue proper, clear, colorless; contains a mixture of proeoglycans and glycoproteins
H zone
contains myosin only
hair bulb
expanded end of follicle
hair matrix
cells on inner walls of follicle
hair papillae
peg of connective tissue containing capilaries and nerves
hair root
hair surface below the epidermis and into the dermis or even hypodermis; sensory
hallux
great toe
Haversian canal
central canal
hinge joint
where an appendage is allowed to flex or extend by on a single plane
holocrine glands
gland that sends an entire gland out
hyaline cartilage
type II collagen; ends of bones, costal cartiages, nose; glassy cartilage
hypodermis
superficial fascia; stores fat and anchors skin to muscles; help loss prevention
hyponychium
epithelium of the nail bed; posterior part in the region of the lunula
I band
contains only thin bands, actin only in muscle cells
inferior
downward towards the feet
inguen (inguinal)
groin
inner medulla
integral protein
penetrate all the way through the cell membrane
integument
skin
intermediate
between
interphase
period beween cell divisions. During this phase the DNA unwinds and splits into 2 strands
intersitital fluid
fluid between cells and tissues; provides a vehicle for materials to be exchanged between the blood sream and cells
inversion
when the foot curls medially so he big toe is up
joint cavity
ends of bones
keratin
protein that provides a barrier
keratinocytes
produces keratin; mitotic cells at basal layer pushing cells up to apical surface; die as they raise to the surface, and become more concentrated with keratin
lacunae
small cavity
lamellae
calcified matrix
Langerhans cells
macrophages within epithelium; responsible for delivering HIV
lateral
torwards the sides of the body; away from the midline of the body
lateral rotation
turning an appendage outward
ligament
contribute to the strength of the joint and reinforce the fibrous joint capsule; joins bone to bone
loose connective tissue (areolar)
least specilized connective tissue; contains all of the cell and fibers found in connective tissue; has an open framework; ground substance accounts for most its volume
lumbus (lumbar)
back
lunula
nail matrix of the epithelium near nail root
lymph
interstitual fluid inside the lymphatic capillaries
lysosome
Digestive unit of the cell; defensive part of the cell
M line
band of protein that holds myosin together
macrophage
(histiocytes) derived from monocytes in bone marrow; migrate to the connective tissue and function as phagocytes; enhance immunologic activities of lymphocytes; phagocytes derived from monocytes
mamma (Mammary)
breast
mammary gland
produces milk
manus
hand
mast cell
in the vicinity of small blood cells; house metachromatic granules; promote inflammation
matrix
contains metabolic enzymes that provide ATP for cellular function
medial
torwards the middle of the body
medial rotation
turning the appendage inward
mediastinum
within the thoracic cavity between the lungs; central cavity; contains the heart, and the sac around the heart (pericardium); also contains the esophagus, the trachea, and intial branches of the bronchi and the thymus
medullary cavity
the hollow cavity filled with fat (yellow bone marrow) that is unique to long bones; hollowed out by osteoclasts and serves as an energy reserve as well as an interior padding
melanin
made from tyrosine
melanocytes
produces melanin pogment; cellular extensions bud off to keratinocytes; protect from UV radiation; digested by lysosomes in Caucasian
mensenteries
fans of double layered visceral peritoneum
mentis (mental)
chin
Merkel's cells
specialized epithelial cells found in stratum basal; sensitive to touch; release chemicals that stimulate sensory nerve ending providing information about objects touching the skin
merocrine glands
eccrine glands
mesothelia
simple squamous tissue that lines the ventral body cavity
metaphase
phase in which the chromosomes align at the equatorial plane
microglial cells
phagocytes of the NS; found throughout the CNS
microvilli
Folds within the cell membrane to increaae its surface area
mid-sagittal plane
divides the body into halves, right and left
mitochondria
the power house of the cell; contains own DNA, responsible for making ATP
mitosis
division of the nucleus
mucous membrane
inner lining of most hollow organs
multipolar neuron
have several dendrites and a single axon that may have 1 or more branches; most common in the CNS
muscle tissue
contractile tissue; receives signals from nervous tissue and hormones; tissue of the skeletal muscles, heart, and contractile regions of the organ sytems, including blood vessels, respiratory and reproductive tubes, digestive system, urinary system and skin
myelin
multilayered membrane sheath composed primarily of phospholipids
myosin
protein that mkes up microfilaments
nail bed
root of epidermis
nasus (nasal)
nose
neruron
nerve cell
nervous tissue
electro-chemical conduction; regulates muscles and glands; receives and interprets input from the environment; primary tissue of the brain, spinal cord, and sense organs; responsible for all thouht; learning and experience
Node of Ranvier
gaps between myelin sheaths produced by adjacent schwann cell
nuclear envelope
Double membrane of the nucleus; separates it from the cytoplasm.
nucleolus
small spherical unit within the nucleus; it contains RNA and proteins; Ribosomes synthesized here
nucleus
Brain of the cell; oval protoplasmic body surrounded by a membrane; chromosomes are found in here
oblique
cut at an angle
oculus (orbital)
eye
olecranon (olecranal)
back of the elbow
oligodencytes
creates myelin sheathes around axons in the CNS; several cellular extensions from a cell body
omenta (omentum)
riddled with fat; may provide extra insulation for the internal abdominal organs
peroxizyme
Another detox unit of the cell. Looks like a vesicle. Contain peroxiase (catalase)
oris (oral)
mouth
osetoid
organic components of the bone matrix, produced by osteoblasts and osteocytes
osmosis
diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane
osteoblast
precursure to osteocyte
osteoclast
dissolves the matrix and fibers of bones to make room for blood vessels
osteocytes
cells to make bone
osteon
unit of compact bone,osteocytes, lamellae and central canal
outer cortex
papillary layer of dermis
dermis + areolar connectiv tissue;peg-like; fingr prints and foot prints; sweat glands open at crests of these ridges
parasagittal plane
runs vertically to one side of the midline; if either the right side or left side had more
parietal pericardium
serous membrane found on the wall interior of the pericardium proper (sac that surrounds the heart)
parietal peritoneum
serous membrane found on the abdominal body wall
parietal pleura
serous membrane found on the body wall of the rib cage
patellar
knee
pectoral
chest
pelvic cavity
contains the lower regions o the digestive organs, the urinary blader and the female genitalia
pelvis (pelvic)
pelvis
pericardial cavity
space between the parietal pericardium and the visceral pericardium that covers the outer surface of the heart
pericytes
found around blood vessels, contractile properties, may help direct blood flow
periosteum
covering of the diaphyses that is continuous with the articular capsule, the ligaments and tendons; indirectly contributes the strength of the joint because it helps anchor the connective tisues that are directly associated with the joint; serves as the pathwy for blood vessels coming to and from bone
peripheral protein
interior lining of the cell membrane are usually enzymes or anchoring proteins
peritoneal cavity
portion of the ventral body cavity that contains the abdominal and pelvic subdivisions
pes (pedal)
foot
phagocytic vesicles
vesicles that eat extracellular materials or pathogens
phagocytosis
cell takes in large particles; or even bacteria; attaches a lysosome to them, and then digests them; cell eating
phospholipid bilayer
creates cell membrane has a hypo and hyperphilic side
pinocytic vesicles
vesicles that drink extracellular materials or pathogens
pinocytosis
fluids are taken in by a funnel shaped invagination in the cell that resembles a shallow pore; cell drinking
pivot joint
designed for rotation; axis bone of the neck; the elbow and the knee; rotation is uni-planar and usually cannot exceed a 180 angle
plantar
sole of foot
plasma
protein rich liquid of the blood
pleural cavity
subdivision of the throacic cavity that contains the lungs
pollex
thumb
popliteus (popliteal)
back of the knee
posterior
torwards the back
primary ossification center
blood vessels invade the cartilage and form the bony collar and penetrate the cacified matrix via perforating cnals; fibroblasts come in with blood and become osteoblasts, which take residence on he cavernous matrix; bone spreads increasing the length and width of the diaphysis
pronation
palms go down
prone
lie face down
prophase
1st phase of mitosis; the chromatin turns into chromsonal threads that break up into pairs of rod-shaped chromosomes
protraction
thrusting a body part forward, tongue, chin
proximal
nearer point of attachment
Pseudostratified (columnar/cubodial) epithelium
has appearance of stratified all rest on basement membrane, however some do not reach the apical end
receptor mediated endocytosis
cell has specific receptor proteins arranged in a shallow pocket on the cellular membrane; ligands attach to the receptors; form vesicle
reticular layer of dermis
80% of the dermis; mainly collagen fibers
reticular tissue
tissue of the lymphoid organs; help form framework of lyphatic organs; type III-short fibers; sugar coated
retraction
pulling a body part in; tongue, chin
retroperitoneal
situated outside or behind the peritoneal cavity
ribosomes
Sites of protein synthesis; either free or attached to the ER; contain high concentratiion of RNA
rotation
when you twist an appendage or your head from side to side
rough endoplasmic reticulum
Cellular highway for protein transport and alteration. Contains ribosomes. Cellular membranes are remade here.
S or synthesis
subphase DNA is replicated, so that the cell contains twice the genetic material
saddle joint
elaboration of the ellipsoidal joint, but the union between the bones is much more pronounced; the carpometalcarpal joint of the thumb
sagittal plane
cut the body down the middle into left and right
satellite cells
surrounds the neural cell bodies in ganglia
schwann cell
glia cells in the PNS that forms myaline sheets
sebaceous gland
glands that secrete sebum, associated with hair follicles
sebum
waxy secretion that coats the surfaces of hair
secondary ossification center
blood vessels invade the epiphyses bringing fibroblasts; 2ndary ossification centers filled with cancellous bone develop the diaphysis; periosteum replaces perichondrium
serous fluid
fluid between organs, ensures that there is no friction
serous membrane
separate organs from the rest of the body; form a liquid barrier between the organ and its adjacent body wall which prevents friction; found on the heart, the lungs and many abdominal organs as well as the walls that house these organs
simple columnar epithelium
column-shaped cell with nucleus near one end
simple cubodial epithelium
cube-shaped cell with nucleus in center
simple squamous epithelium
square-shaped cell, flat, one layer
skeletal muscle
contractile organ of the muscular system
smooth endolasmic reticulum
cellular highway for lipid synthesis. ribosomes absent. Detox unit, continuous wih the Golgi
smooth muscle
muscle tissue found in the walls of many visceral organs, non-striated and involuntary
stratified columnar epithelium
more than 1 level with columnar on apical end
stratified cuboidal epithelium
more than 1 layer of cells with cubodial on apical end
stratified squamous epithelium (keratinized)
more than one layer of squamous tissue with dead cells at the apical side
stratified squamous epithelium (unkeratinized)
more that 1 lyer of squamous tissue with live cells at the apical side
stratum basale (stratum germinativum)
this layer rests of the dermislayeon the papillary
stratum corneum
layer of flattened, dead, keratinized cells covering the epidermis
stratum germinativum (stratum basale)
inner most layer, firmly attached to basal lamina of the basement membrane
stratum lucidum
glassy layer only in thick skin
stratum spinosum
this layer is the bulk of the epidermis; stem cells divide and are pushed up into the granulosum
superficial
on the surface
superior
upward towards the head and scalp
supination
palms go up
supine
lie face up
sural
calf
suture
a type of synarthosis; blocked together; non-moveable joint
symphsis
specialized joints formed by fibrocartilage; bound between the vertebrae and between the pubic bones
synarthosis
nonmovable joints
synchondrosis
cartilage strip that rests between bones
syndesmosis
ligamentous connections between the tibia and fibula of the leg, and between the radius and ulna of the forearm
synostosis
a type of synarthrosis; a temporay joint; bones are join together and then fuse so that the suture joints never form
synovial fluid
fluid that fills the joint cavity; produced by the interior lining of the articular capsule
synovial joint
generic diarthrosis; bathed in a lubricating bath of synovial fluid
synovial membrane
assist in lubrication
synovial tendon sheath
resembles a hot dog bun and wraps around a tendon
synthesis S
DNA is replicated
tarsus (tarsal)
ankle
telophase
last stage of mitosis, chromosomes unravel to become chromatin. The nuclear envelope and nucleoli reappear
tendon
connects muscle to bone; contribute to the integrity of the joint
tendon sheath
specialized type of bursa that wraps around the tendon
terminal hair
long visable hair
thoracis (thoracic)
thorax
throacic cavity
cavity created by the rib cage and houses he heart, lungs, esophagus and trachea; floor of the cavity is the diaphragm
tight juction
belt-like, holds cells together, fuse cells together all around
trabeculae
in spongy bone; branching plates
transitional epithelium
found only in the urinary bladder and the uterers has ability to change shape, from columnar to cubodial to squamous
transverse
divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) parts
umbillicus (umbillical)
naval
unipolar (pseudounipolar) neuron
have continuous dendritic and axonal processes, and the cell body lies off to oneside
vellus
peach fuzz
ventral
on the front
ventral cavity
houses the hear, lungs, stomach, intestines, etc; divided into 2 minor cavities: thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
vertebral
vertebrae
vesicle
Storage bubbles within the cell. produced by the golgi apparatus and or endoplasmic reticula that transport proteins or gases
visceral pericardium
serous membrane found on the heart
visceral peritoneum
serous membrane found on the liver, gallbladder, the stomach or the small or large intestine; forms a double layered fan between the regions of the small intestine as well as the large intestine; also form an apron between the lesser curvature of the stomach and the liver and between he greater curvature of the stomach and the large intestine; lesser and greater omenta
visceral pleura
serous membrane found on the lung
Volkmann canal
any of the canals in bone that transmit blood vessel from the periostium into the bone
Z disc
disk of protein
zone of calcificaiton
matrix is calcified and chondrocytes dies
zone of hypertrophication
chondrocytes mature and enlarge
zone of ossification
osteoblsts become osteocytes
zone of proliferation
chondrocytes divide rapidly
zonula adherens
tight junction, encircles the cell, a little looser
zonula occludens
tight junction; tightest junction nearest surface