Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What muscles elevate the scapula?
Trapezius and levator scapulae
What muscles retract the scapula?
Trapezius and rhomboids
origin: transverse process C1-C4
insertion: scapula along medial border
action: elevates scapula
nerve: dorsal scapular
Levator scapulae
origin: spinous process C7-T1 minor; T2-T5 major
insertion: medial border of scapula
action: retraction of scapula
nerve: dorsal scapular
Rhomboids (major and minor)
origin: lateral part of ribs 1-8
insertion: medial border of scapula
action: protraction scapula
nerve: long thoracic nerve
Serratus Anterior
origin: ribs 3-5
insertion: coracoid process
action: protraction of scapula
nerve: medial pectoral nerve
Pectoralis minor
How many muscles attach the axial skeleton to the shoulder girdle?
Five; trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboids, serratus anterior, and pectoralis minor
What muscles that are the muscles that attach the axial skeleton to the shoulder girdle are innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve?
Levator scapulae and rhomboids
What two muscles protract the scapula?
Serratus anterior and Pectoralis minor
The humero-ulnar and humero-radial is a __________joint.
The radio-ulnar joint is a ________ joint.
The radiocarpal joint is a ______ joint.
The condyloid joint in the wrist allows for....
Ab/Adduction and flex/extend
The carpometacarpals (2-5) and intercarpals are _____ joints.
Gliding (but hardly move)
The metacarpophalangeal joint is a ______ joint.
The interphalangeal joint is a _____ joint.
The pivot joint allows for ......
Pronation and supination
Goes from the acromion process and clavicle; it tethers clavicle to acromion
Acromioclavicular lig.
Coracoid process to clavicle and prevents displacement of collar bone
Coracoclavicular lig.
Creates a roof over the humerus; prevents superior displacement of humerus
Coracoacromial lig.
Along with the coracoacromial lig. this lig. helps prevent sup. displacement of the humerus
Coracohumeral lig.
Radial collateral lig helps stabilize ____
This lig. of elbow helps stabilize medially
Ulnar collateral lig.
Supports radial joint and prevents anterior displacement of radial head
Annular lig.
Has fibers in 3 directions
origin: ligamentum nuchae; spines of T1-T12
insertion: spine of scapula, acromium, lateral 1/3 of clavicle
action: elevation, retraction of scapula
nerve: spinal accessory nerve (cranial nerve #11)
This joint is the bony attachment between upper limb and axial skeleton
Sternoclavicular (gliding joint)
What kind of joint is the clavicle and the acromion process?
Syndemosis-fiber joint
Name the two borders of the scapula.
Vertebral (medial) and axillary (lateral)
Name two angles of the scapula.
Superior (medial) and inferior (bottom tip)
What are the two processes of the scapula?
Acromion and corocoid
Name the 4 fossae of the scapula
Subscapular, supraspinous, infraspinous, glenoid
What is the glenoid fossa for?
Articulation with the humerus
What are the motions of the scapula?
Elevation, depression, protraction, retraction, and rotation (5)
What is the difference btwn the anatomical and surgical neck of the humerus?
Anatomical neck is just below the head and the surgical neck is where the bone would break if you bent it
The capitulum is ______ and the trochlea is ____ on the distal end of the humerus
lateral; medial
The radial fossa articulates with the ________.
The coronoid fossa articulates with the ___________.
The radius is _____ and the ulna is _______.
lateral; medial
The ulnar head is ______.
How many bones are in the wrist?
Eight; scaphoid, lunate, triangular, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate
The pollex is the ______
The acromioclavicular joint is a ________ joint.
The glenohumeral joint is a _________ joint.
Ball and socket
origin: medial 2/3 clavicle; sternum
insertion: greater tuburcle of humerus
action: flex shoulder; adduct shoulder
nerve: medial/lateral pectoral
Pectoralis major
origin: spinous process T6-T12
insertion: bicipital groove
action: adduct and extend shoulder/ int. rotation
nerve: thoracodorsal
Latissimus dorsi
origin: spine of scapula; acromium; lat 1/3 clavicle
insertion: deltoid tuberosity (humerus)
action: anterior: flex/ int. rotation of shoulder mid: ABducts shoulder posterior: extend/ext rot
nerve: axillary
origin: subscapular fossa
insertion: lesser tuburcle of humerus
action: int rot.
nerve: upper/ lower subscapular
origin: superspinous fossa of scapula
insertion: greater tuburcle
action: weak ABductor
nerve: suprascapular
origin: lower 1/2 humerus
insertion: ulnar tuberosity
action: flex elbow
nerve: musculocutaneous
What muscles are in the anterior arm and what is their innervation?
Coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, and brachialis (musculocutaneous nerve)
origin: superspinous fossa of scapula
insertion: greater tuburcle
action: weak ABductor
nerve: suprascapular
origin: infraspinous fossa
insertion: greater tuburcle
action: ext. rot. of shoulder
nerve: suprascapular
origin: lat. border of scapula
insertion: greater tuburcle
action: ext rot. of shoulder
nerve: axillary
Teres minor
origin: inferior parts of scapula
insertion: lesser tuburcle of humerus
action: int. rot. of upper extremity
nerve: lower subscapular
Teres major
How many muscles insert on the humerus?
Eight (Pec. major, lat. doris, deltoid, subscapularis, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor and teres major)
What muscles insert on the greater tuburcle of the humerus?
Pectoralis major, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor
What muscles insert on the lesser tuburcle of the humerus?
Subscapularis and teres major
What muscles are innervated by the axillary nerve?
Teres minor and deltoid
origin: long head: infraglenoid tuburcle lateral head: post. surf. of humerus medial head: post. lower humerus
insertion: olecranon process
action: ext. elbow and (long head) shoulder
nerve: radial
Triceps brachii
What muscles make up the rotator cuff?
Subscapularis, suprspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor
origin: lat. epicondyle of humerus
insertion: olecranon process
action: weak ext of elbow
nerve: radial
What nerve innervates the posterior group of the arm?
Radial nerve
origin: coracoid process
insertion: medial border of humerus
action: flex and ADducts shoulder
nerve: musculocutaneous
origin: long head: scapula (supraglenoid tuburcle) short head: coracoid process
insertion: radius (radial tuberosity)
action: long: flexion (weak) short: supinates elbow
nerve: musculocutaneous
Biceps brachii
action: pronation
nerve: median
Pronator teres
action: ABduct and flex wrist
nerve: median
Flexor carpi radialis
action: weak flexor of the wrist
nerve: median
(not everyone has one)
Palmaris longus
action: flex wrist and ADducts wrist
nerve: ulnar
Flexor carpi ulnaris
action: flex wrist and digits
nerve: median
(4 tendons to 2-5)
Flexor digitorum superficialis
Where do the muscles of the superificial group of the forearm originate?
Medial epicondyle of humerus
How many muscles are in the superficial group of the forearm?
Five (pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, and flexor digitorum superficialis)
action: flexes thumb and wrist
nerve: median
Flexor pollicus longus
action: flexes all digits (2-4)
nerve (radial half): median (1&2)
(ulnar half): ulnar (4&5)
Flexor digitorum profundus
action: pronate forearm
nerve: median
Pronator quadratus
What muscles are apart of the deep group in the forearm?
Flexor pollicis longus, flexor digitorum profundus, and pronator quadratus
action: flexion of elbow
nerve: radial
action: extension of wrist and ABduction
nerve: radial
Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
action: extends digits and wrist (2-5)
nerve: radial
Extensor digitorum
action: extends 5th digit
nerve: radial
Extensor digiti minimi
action: extends wrist and ADduction
nerve: radial
Extensor carpi ulnaris
What are the muscles of the posterior forearm group innervated by?
Radial nerve
The superficial muscles of the posterior forearm orginate from where?
Lateral epicondyle
How many muscles are in the superficial posterior forearm group?
Five (brachioradialis, exten. carpi rad longus and brevis, exten. digit., exten. digit minimi, and exten. carpi ulnaris)
action: ABducts pollux and extend
nerve: radial
Abductor pollicis longus
action: extend thumb
nerve: radial
Extensor pollicis brevis
action: extend thumb
nerve: radial
Exten. poll. longus
action: extends index finger
nerve: radial
Extensor indicis
action: supinates forearm
nerve: radial
Where do the deep muscles of the posterior forearm originate from?
Membrane btwn radius and ulna
action: ABduct thumb
nerve: median
Abductor pollicis brevis
action: flex thumb
nerve: median
Flexor pollicis brevis
action: flexes and abducts thumb
nerve: median
Opponens pollicis
action: ADducts thumb
nerve: median (oblique fibers: ulnar)
Adductor pollicis
What muscles are in the thenar (lateral) (first digit)?
Abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, and adductor pollicis
What muscles are in the hypothenar (medial) group?
Abductor digiti minimi, flexor digit minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi
action: flex metacarpalphalangeal while extend interphalangeal joints
nerve (1-2): median
nerve (3-4): ulnar
Lumb #1 goes to ____ and Lumb #2 goes to _____
2 and 3
action: ABducts
nerve: ulnar
Dorsal Interossei (4): int 4 to digit 4
action: ADduct
nerve: ulnar
Palmar interossei (3)
Suture that connects frontal to 2 parietal bones
Coronal suture
Suture that connects 2 parietal bones
Sagittal suture
Suture that connects 2 parietal to occipital bones
Suture that connects parietal and temporal bones
Circular; around eye
action: closes eye tight (contraction)
Orbicularis oculi
Kissing muscle
action: pucker lips
Orbicularis oris
Smile; attaches at zygomatic bone
action: smile
Zygomaticus major
Blowing on trumpet
action: cheeks in; lips pursed
Originates from front border of g. aponeurotica
action: raises eyebrows
action: wiggles ears
Connective tissue over muscles of head
Galea aponeurotica
origin: zygomatic arch
insertion: mandible angle
action: elevates mandible
nerve: mandibular branch of CN V (trigeminal nerve)
origin: temporal bone (tendon goes behind arch)
insertion: coronoid process
action: elevate and retract mandible
nerve: trigeminal nerve
origin: lateral pterygoid plate (lateral side)
insertion: condyloid process
action: depresses mandible and protracts teeth forward
nerve: trigeminal nerve
Lateral pterygoid
origin: lateral pterygoid plate (medial)
insertion: mandible angle (medial)
action: elevate mandible and side to side
nerve: trigeminal nerve
Medial pterygoid
origin: sternum, clavicle
insertion: occipital bone (mastoid process)
action: rotate head to opposite
nerve: CN 11
What are the four true muscles of mastication?
Masseter, temporalis, lateral and medial pterygoid
What muscles make up the suprahyoid?
Mylohyoid, digastric (anterior belly), digastric (posterior belly), stylohyoid, and geniohyoid
What muscles make up the infrahyoid?
Sternohyoid, omohyoid, sternothyroid, and thyrohyoid
What do the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles do?
Elevate, depress, protract, and retract, the hyoid bone and are important for phonation and swallowing
Where do the posterior muscles of the arm insert?
Olecranon process
Articulates with manubrium medially and acromion process laterally
The coracoclavicular lig. attaches at the ______ and ______ AND is made up of the ____ and ___ ligaments.
Coracoid process and clavicle; Conoid and trapezoid ligaments