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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What allows a muscle to relax?
Name three types of neurotransmitters
dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine
What are neutransmitter substances contained within?
vesicles inside of terminal buttons
What poison has the same molecular shape as acetylcholine?
Term for botulism
clostridium botulinus
the name for the gap between neurons
the space itself between neurons
synaptic cleft
Impulses are transmitted away from the cell body by an---
What is a nerve?
A collection of axons
Cell bodies of neurons which are grouped together in a mass
The Central nervous system consists of--
brain and spinal cord
the PNS consists of--
composed of mainly of axons and dendrites of sensory and motor neurons.
What % of body weight is the brain?
What % of oxygen does the brain need?
What is the brain suspended in?
CSF - cerebrospinal fluid
How long would the brain last without oxygen?
approx. 1 minute
What is the tiniest division of blood cells called?
What is the network of capillaries called around the brain?
The blood-brain barrier
What is the BBB's function?
To allow only certain substances to get into the brain. What can get inside is what is called fat-soluble. Allows in water and sugar.
What is inserted into the brain which later turns into something else?
L-Dopa turns into dopamine.
What is the brain sometimes referred to as?
the cerebrum
Name the four lobes of the brain and their functions
frontal, parietal (speech), occipital (vision), temporal (auditory)
name an area of the left frontal lobe and its function.
Brocha's area after Paul Brocha. Has to do with moving the tongue, lips & mouth.
If you damage the Brocha's area, what happens?
Brocha's aphasia - person will have trouble talking
what divides the brain into left/right hemispheres?
longitudinal fissure
what divides the brain into frontal/parietal lobes?
fissure of Rolando
What area is anterior to the fissure?
motor cortex
what area is posterior to the fissure?
sensory cortex
the outer covering of the brain and its color
cerebral cortex - grey - cell bodies
what color is the inside of the brain and why?
white because it's axons
separates frontal/temporal lobes
Fissures of Sylvius
A small groove on the cerebral cortex
sulcus (sulci)
A convolution or a ridge that are the actual matter of the brain
gyrus (gyri)
A big thick band of nerve fibers which crisscross back and forth between both sides of the hemisphere, holding the two hemispheres together.
Corpus callosum
What color is the spinal cord
White on the outside (axons) grey on the inside (cell bodies)
the three special membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. The order in which they are arranged is important.
dura mater, arachnoid, subarachnoid space, dura mater
What is the subarachnoid space? What is it filled with and what is its function?
helps to provide nutrients to the brain. Also acts as a cushion to keep the brain protected against jostling and concussions and such thing.
Occasionally, the aqueducts through which the fluid passes can become clogged, causing the CSF to accumulate in the brain. This results in---
What other than oxygen does the brain constantly need?
a system of 4 chambers deep within the brain. They are filled all the time with cerebrospinal fluid
a network of capillaries (or nerves) within the ventricles-- what is this and what is its function?
choroid plexus. The CSF is made here.
Bleeding in the brain is called--
subdural hematoma
An involuntary increase in the speed of the person’s walking in advanced Parkinson’s disease.
festination (festinating gait)
Another name for the cerebellum
little brain
What is the cerebellum associated with?
muscle coordination and equilibrium.
A lack of muscle coordination that occurs when the cerebellum is injured
Medulla oblangata's function
regulates breathing
Interior portion of the ventricles
The band of fibers similar to the corpus callosum that separates the two halves of the cerebellum.
The upper most portion of the spinal cord, or the very beginning of the spinal cord at the base of the brain
medulla oblangata
Ascending nerve cells--
Moves TO your brain to alert you of a sensation (hot, cold, pain)
Descending nerve cells--
Moves FROM your brain to tell you to move something. (arm, leg etc.)
what is heavily concentrated in the posterior region of the spinal cord?
sensory axons/fibers
what is heavily concentrated inthe anterior portion of the spinal cord?
motor axons/fibers
reflex arc
an impulse that does not go all the way up to the brain. It is mediated within the spinal cord.
Lou Gehrig's disease - what is it and what is it's real name?
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS
Condition in which the motor neurons degenerate in the spinal cord. The result is gradual paralysis
Condition in which one side of the face is paralyzed - not permanent.
Bell's palsy
Occurs in the last stage of syphilis - describe and name
tabes dorsalis -
Loss of sense of touch, can't walk, ataxia
What is the sac called that extends along with the dura mater down PAST the spinal cord?
lumbar cistern
What is the lumbar cistern's significance, medically?
Spinal taps are taken from this area
the strand of nerves which leave the termination of the spinal cord
cauda equina
The point where the nerve leaves the vertebrae -- its name and the medical term
nerve root
The little hole on each side of a vertebrae that allows a nerve to exit.
intervertebral foramen
allows the spinal cord to go through
spinal foramen
Inflammation of a nerve root
Any escape of fluid from a vessel
pit of one's stomach
solar plexus
network of nerves
drooping eyelid
condition involving birth--
Erb's palsy-- nerves are damaged in the neck region, resulting in paralysis of the neck/face area.