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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Axial skeleton
Composed of bones of the body's central axis
(skull, vertebral column, rib cage)
Appendicular skeleton
composed of bones of the upper and lower appendages and bones attaching them to the axial skeleton.
# of bones in the axial skeleton
80
2 Major regions of the skull
Cranium and facial
# of bones in the cranium
8
Immovable joints
sutures
Cranial roof is formed by:
frontal bone, 2 parietal bones, occipital bones
Frontal bone contains:
supraorbital foramen and frontal sinus
Occipital bone contains:
foramen magnum and occipital condyles
Forms the lateral walls of the cranium
temporal bones
brings sound waves into the skull
external auditory meatus
Areas of the temporal bones
Squamous, petrous, mastoid, zygomatic
butterfly-shape bone, forms anterior internal floor of cranium
sphenoid bone
depression where the temporal bone articulates with a process of the mandible
mandibular fossa
pituitary gland lies within
sella turcica
Orbital fissure
a slit in the superior aspect of the sphenoid bone that blood vessels and nerves pass through.
Fissure
A split between two bones
Foramen
A hole within a bone
Meatus
Tube-like passageway in a bone
Sinus
cavity within a bone
Fossa
Simple depression or hollowing in a bone.
Sulcus
Groove that may contain a blood vessel, nerve, or tendon
Condyle
large, convex protrusion at the end of a bone.
Head
Round protrusion separated from the rest of a bone by a neck (e.g. head of the femur)
Facet
flat, smooth surface
Crest
Ridge on a bone
Epicondyle
Second protrusion above a condyle
Line
Less prominent ridge on a bone
Tubercle
Small, round protrusion
Tuberosity
Large, roung, and roughened protrusion
Trochanter
Large protrusion
Bone which separates the nasal cavity from the remainder of the cranium
ethmoid bone
Process by which olfactory nerves pass from the nose to the brain
ethmoid process
Bone where holes which olfactory nerves pass through
cribriform plates
Projects upward between the cribiform plates
crista galli
Membranous areas in infants
fontanels
# of facial bones
14
Bones which form the bridge of the nose
Nasal bones
Bone that divides the nose into left/right chambers
Vomer bone/nasal septum
Plates which form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
inferior nasal conchae
Two bones that support the face and form cheekbones
zygomatic bones
2 bones found near the medial corners of the eye
lacrimal bones
Two bones forming the upper jaw
maxillae (sing. maxilla)
Sinuses formed by the maxillae
maxillary sinuses
forms posterior portion of the hard palate
palatine bones
Lower jaw
mandible
Projection on the end of each mandible (2 parts)
mandibular condyle and the coronoid process
Cheek bones
Malar
containe upper teeth
superior maxillae
line of juncture of the two halves of the lower jaw
symphysis mentis
contained in the mandible
temporomandibular joint
branch of the upper jaw
ramus
# of each kind of vertebrae
7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 1 sacrum, 1 coccyx
unfused vertebrae are separated by:
intervertebral disks
disks which are bulged out of shape
herniated disk
abnormal side-ways curve
scoliosis
thoracic curve
kyphosis (hunchback)
exaggerated curve of the lumbar area
lordosis
Osteoarthritis
arthritis occuring from "wear and tear:
akylosing
abnormal fusion of the joints
spondylitis
inflammation within the joints
Pannus
extra bone material that causes joints to fuse
Spondylolysis
LYS – to break down, to disintegrate, to dissolve, to loosen. A fracture to a certain part of a vertebra.
Spondylolisthesis
forward displacement of a lumbar intervertebral disk. “pushes forward”
Spondylosyndesis
surgical procedure of the vertebra
autoimmune disease
very bad imflammation
extends behind the body to enclose and protect the spinal cord as it passes through the opening in the arch
vertebral arch
Opening in the vertebra
vertebral foramen
sites of attachment for many back muscles as well as ligmanets holding the vertebral column together
spinous processes and transverse processes and the superior/inferior articular processes
forms the vertebral arch
two pedicles
Openings in the pedicles
intervertebral foramina
Two kinds of cervical vertebrae and their processes
1) Atlas (balances and supports the head). Has 2 processes called facts.
2) Axis. - has the odontoid process which helps the head rotate
Section of the vertebrae between the spinous process and the transverse process
Lamina
another name for atlas
C1
another name for axis
C2
another name for thoracic vertebrae
dorsal vertebrae
another name for body
centrum,
another name for spinal cord
vertebral foraman
Help to keep the back erect
Erector spinae muscles
annulus fibrosis
disk that acts as a cushion
jam-like substnace in the annulus fibrosis
nucleus pulposus