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32 Cards in this Set

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How do humans produce sound?
Use of organs that do not have primary biological function of speech production. 1. force to set object into vibration. 2. object elastic enough to vibrate 3. medium that is able to propagate a sound wave.
Production of sound: force
provided by respiration
Production of sound: vibrating obj
"flow of air through the glottis, complemented by the layered structure of the vocal folds, wich produce a mucosal wave. "
Biologic function of larynx
protect the lungs
biologic function of respiration
gas exchange oxygen to co2
Larynx and respiration
"superior continuation of respiratiory passage, sits on top of trachea, cartilaginous (one bone) system linked by membranes"
Larynx
divided into: vestibule; ventriclee of morgagni and inferior division
Laryx Vestibule
"vestibule, superior subdivision, extends from superior opeing to larylnx to ventricricular/false folds"
Larynx Ventricle of Morgagni
extends from fentricular folds to the true vocal folds
larynx inferior division
from vocal folds to trachea
Larynx framwork
"9 cartilages and one bone. All cartilage (except epiglottis) is hyaline cartilage. Epiglottis is elastic. Cartilages are connected by ligaments, one bone is hyoid bone"
Hyoid bone
"not attached to any other bone, shped like horseshoe, larynx is suspended from this bone, Exernal (extrinsic) laryngeal muscles are attached to it, serves as support for tongue and larynx."
Thyroid cartilage
largest cartilage of larnx. Two laminae (surfaces) join anteriorly to form an angle (angle of thyroid/adams apple). In men the thyroid angle is more acute resulting in a more prominent Adam's Apple.
Cornua
posterior border of each lamin extend upwrd to form hornlike structures. Attaching indirectly to the hyoid. Inferiorly the cornua continues and attaches to the posterior aspect of the criicoid arch.
Cricoid cartilage
"shaped like a signet ring, narrow convex ring anteriorly and posteriorly a large lamina forming the signet"
Arytenoid Cartilage
paired that rest on the superior border of the cricoid lamina. Shaped like pyramids. Apex curves posteriorly. Two processes. Vocal folds attach on one process and a muscle attaches on the other.
Arytenoid Cartilage
"can rock, slide and rotate"
Corniculate Cartilages
"two pyramidal shaped notules, loced on the apex of each arytenoid. FX: protect arytenoid"
Cuneiform
rod shaped elastic cartilage found in posterior aryepiglottic folds to support that membrane. Highly variable insize and number among individuals
Eppiglottis
"leaf like structure bound by ligaments to thebase of the tongue, walls or pharynx and thyroid cartilage"
Epiglottis
closes off the laryngeal airway and deflects the bolus of food posteriorly into the esophagus during swallowing. Once it was related to breathing by acting to seal the airway and prevent the intake of substance
Laryngeal membranes
"these are extrinsic memranes and ligaments that connect the laryngeal cartilages, hyoid bone and trachea. "
Thyrohyoid membrane
Thyrohyoid membrane connects the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone
conus elasticus membrane
anteriorly connects the cricoid cartilage to the thyroid cartilage
Sternocleidomastoid
"considered a laryngeal muscle; supports larynx and entire neck region, part of respiration"
Muscles of Larynx
"divided into tow groups: extrinsic(support larynx, attachment outside larynx) and intrinsic (control movement in larynx, origin and insertion within the larynx. "
Extrinsic and intrisic muscles of larynx
"function as antagonist to stabilize the hyoid bone and (since it is attached to the hyoid bone, the larynx."
Extrinsic Laryngeal muscles
called strap muscles. FX: move larynx as a whole structure. Divided into suprahyoid and infrahyoid.
Suprahyoid muscles
diatrinsic (paired) consists of two muscular sections (bellies) joined by a tendon
Digatrinsic
FX Depress the mandible and stabilize the larynx via the hyoid bone. Posterior belly is very active during mastication and swallowing
Stylohyoid Muscle
slender muscles lying roughly parallel to the posterior belly of the digatrinsic muscle
mylohyid
sheet of muscles that forms the floor of the mouth