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77 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anterior
Toward the front
Posterior
Toward the back
Inferior
Under; underneath
Superior
Above
Cephalic
Toward the head
Cranial
Having to do with the skull
Ventral
Toward the stomach
Caudal
toward the tail-end
Cubital
Around the elbow
Distal
Farthest from the point of origin or attachment - used in reference to long bones
Proximal
Nearest ro the point of origin or attachment - used in reference to long bones.
Ana
Up
Tom
To cut
Anatomy
To cut up
Metabolism
The sum total of all the functions of the body.
Homeostasis
The steady-state equilibrium existing in the body and the maintenance of this state.
Catabolism
The breakdown of organic matter into simpler substances
Anabolism
The buildup or organic matter.
Anatomical Position
The point of reference for all anatomical directional terms.
Dorsal
Back
Medial
Toward the center
Lateral
To the side
Ipsilateral
On the same side.
Contralateral
Opposite side.
Superficial
Refers to structures or blood vessels.
Sagittal Plane
A vertical plane dividing the body into right and left sides.
Frontal/Coronal Plane
Divides the body into anterior/posterior sections
Transverse Plane
Divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
Umbilical Region
Center of the abdomen
Lumbar Region
Lateral to the Umbilical
Epigastric Region
Superior to the Umbilical
Hypochondriac Regions
Lateral to either side of the epigastrium.
Inferior to the umbilical region.
Iliac Regions
Lateral to the hypogastrium.
Inguinal
Relating to the groin area.
Serous Membrane
A very thin layer of membrane that covers something.
Acid
A chemical compound that releases hydrogen atoms.
Base
A chemical compound that attracts hydrogen atoms.
Increasing v. Decreasing #'s on the pH scale
Increasing = Base- Alkaline
Decreasing = Acid
4 Basic tissues that make up the body
Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, Nervous
Epithelial
Provides protection. Covers and lines organs.
Connective (4 types)
Connective proper, bone, blood, cartilage
Types of bone cells
Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes
Osteoblasts
Baby, new bone cells
Osteocytes
mature bone cell
Osteoclasts
eat away excess bone (callus)
3 types Muscle tissue
Skeletal, smooth, cardiac
Nervous tissue's function
Its function is simply one of communication
# of bones in body
206
Periosteum
Vascular nervous tissue which covers the bone wherever there is no cartilage.
Types of bones
Long, short, flat, Irregular
Name some long bones
arms, legs, fingers, toes
Name some flat bones
skull, sternum, shoulder blades, ribs, pelvic bones
Name some short bones
wrists and ankles
Name some irregular bones
vertabrae, sesamoid (knee cap), or bones under the thumb.
Structure of a bone
Diaphysis- shaft
Epiphyses - ends of the bone
Medulary Cavity
Hollow part of the bone that marrow is in.
Endosteum
A thin membrane which lines the medullary cavity.
2 kinds of bone
compact - dense, hard, in shafts of bones
spongy - @ the ends of long bones.
diploe - spongy bone found in between flat bones
Bone diseases
Osteomyelitis, Osteoperosis
Synovial joint
a joint with a capsule around it (knee)
Synovium
membrane that covers the knee
Flexion
Reduces the angle between two bones.
Extension
A joint movement in which the angle between two bones increases
Abduction
Movement of a limb away from the center of the body.
Adduction
Movement of a limb toward the center of the body.
Rotation
Movement of a body part on its axis.
Medial
Towards the middle (does not imply movement)
Pronation
Rotation so the palm is turned backward
Supination
Rotation so the palm is in the anatomical position
Elevation
Raising a body part
Depression
lowering a body part
Retraction
Moving a body part backward
Protraction
Moving a body part forward
Eversion
Turning the foot so the sole is outward
Inversion
Turning the foot so the sole is inward
Dorsiflexion
flexing the foot
Plantar flexion
pointing the foot - moving it away from the shin