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54 Cards in this Set

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Define tissue
Groups of cells that are similar in structure and function
Define epithelial tissue
Lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body
What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
Protection, absorption, filtration, and secretion
Characteristics of epithelium
1. Cells fit closely together.
2. Apical surface - outside, exposed surface
3. Basement membrane - lower surface rests on this structureless material
4. Avascular - no blood supply, depends on diffusion of capillaries below
5. Regenerates easily
Classifications of epithelium
1. Simple squamous
2. Simple cuboidal
3. Simple columnar
4. Pseudostratified columnar
5. Stratified squamous
6. Stratified cuboidal and columnar
7. Transitional
Simple squamous epithelium is used for _.
Filtration or exchange of substances by rapid diffusion
Which tissue is a serous membrane and what does it mean?
Simpe squamous
It lines ventral body cavity and its organs
Where is simple cuboidal common?
In glands and ducts
Where is simple cuboidal found?
Forms walls of kidney and surface of ovaries
The simple columnar lines __.
Entire length of digestive tract from stomach to anus
Simple columnar contains _.
Goblet cells which secret mucus
Define mucosae
Epithelial cells lining cavities open to body exterior
Define pseudostratified columnar
Some cells are shorter than others giving false stratified look
Where is stratified squamous found?
Areas of friction (esophagus, mouth, outer skin)
Stratified cuboidal and columnar is _.
Rare in body, found only in large glands
Characteristics of transitional epithelium tissue
1. Modified stratified squamous found in urinary bladder, ureters, and urethra
2. Cells can slide around and change shape to stretch for urine volume.
Secretion is _.
Product of gland
Edocrine glands are _.
Ductless ex. Throid, adrenals, and pituitary
Exocrine glands _.
Have ducts, ex. sweat and oil, liver, and pancreas
What does connective tissue do?
Connects, protects, and supports body parts
What is the most abundant tissue?
Connective
Characteristics of connective tissue
1. Most have great blood supply, however, tendons and ligaments have poor supply and carilage is avascular.
2. It is made up of extracellular matrix
Characteristics of the extracelular matrix
1. Nonliving substance produced by cells in connective tissue
2. For example, fat tissue = soft matrix, and bone tissue = hard matrix
Types of Connective tissue
1. Bone (osseous)
2. Hyaline cartilage
3. Fibrocartilage
4. Elastic cartilage
5. Dense fibrous tissue
6. Areolar tissue
7. Adipose tissue (fat)
8. Reticular connective tissue
9. Blood
Characteristics of bone
1. Lacunae - cavities holding bone cells
2. Surrounded by hard matrix containing calcium salts
3. Provides protection and support for organs
What is the most common cartilage?
Hyaline
Characteristics of hyaline cartilage
1. Smooth, rubbery, and somewhat hard
2. Support voice box (larynx), attaches ribs to breastbone, and covers ends of bones at joints
Define fibrocartilage
disks between vertebrae
What is elastic cartilage for?
Supports outer ear
What are types of dense fibrous tissues?
Tendons - attach muscles to bones
Ligaments - connect bones to bones
Characteristics of areolar tissue
1. Cushions and protects body organs
2. Holds organs in proper position
3. Loose and fluid nature provides water and nutrients for surrounding cells
Edema
Swelling of tissue caused by its ability to soak up excess fluids
Adipose tissue
Insulates body and protects some organs (kidney and eyeball)
Reticular connective tissue
Supports blood cells in lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow
Blood
Considered connective because blood cells are surrounded by fluid matrix
Fluid matrix that surrounds blood cells
plasma
Neuron
Nerve cell
Functions of nervous tissue
1. Irritability and conductivity
2. Supporting cells protect, support, and insulate neurons
Types of muscle tissues
1. Skeletal
2. Cardiac
3. Smooth muscle (visceral)
Characteristics of skeletal muscle
1. Attached to skeleton
2. Can be controlled voluntarily to move bones or skin
3. Striations - stripes on skeletal muscle
Characteristics of cardiac muscle
1. Found in heart
2. Intercalated disks - junctions where cells fit tightly together
3. Involuntary contrl
Characteristics of smooth muscle
1. Found in hollow organs like stomach and blood vessels
2. Constricts and dilates organ to move substances ex. Peristalsis - moves food through intestines
3. Involuntary
Regeneration
Replacement of destroyed tissue
Fibrosis
Repair by fibrous connective tissue (scar tissue)
Granulation tissue
Pink tissue composed mostly of capillaries growing into damanged area
Connective itssue is ___.
Mitotic (repairs itself) throughout life.
Muscle tissue becomes ___ after puberty.
Amitotic
Nervous tissue becomes ___ shortly after birth.
Amitotic
Cause of aging is unknown, but _ and _ as well as _ are suggested.
physical and chemical insults, as well as genetic programming
Neoplasms
Abnormal masses of proliferating cells.
Neoplasms may be _ or _.
Benign or malignant
Atrophy
Decrease in size when tissue is not stimulated
Hypertrophy
An increase in tissue size
Hyperplasia (more cells created)
in an increase in size when tissue is stimulated strongly or irritated