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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What can be found at the level of the sternal angle (angle of Louis)?
bifurcation of the trachea, aortic arch begins and ends there, and the superior mediastinum
What area of the right atrium do the pectinate muscles cover?
the anterior wall
What is the main atrial supply of the pericardium?
internal thoracic
what drains the pericardium?
percardiophrenic veins and tributaries of the azygos
what is the sensory supply of the pericardium?
phrenic nerve
where is pain felt when sensed by the phrenic nerve?
on the top of the shoulder on the same side
what structure separates the anterior and posterior walls of the right atrium?
crista terminalis, which is also the function between the fetal sinus venosus and fetal right atrium
At what intercostal space is the apex of the heart located?
5th intercostal space... this is where once can observe or palpate the beating of the heart
at what vertebral levels do you find the posterior of the heart?
T6-T9
what are the 3 borders of the heart?
anterior: right ventricle
diaphragmatic: mostly left ventricle and partly the right
Pulmonary: left ventricle
where is percussion of the heart done?

What does this do?
3, 4 and 5 intercostal spaces from left anterior axillary line to the right

it defines the size and density of the heart
which embryologic origin does the coronary sinus arise from?
venous sinus
Which embryologic origin does the smooth wall of the right atrium arise from?
venous sinus
At which costal cartilage level do you find the opening of the following?

1. opening of the SVC
2. opening of the IVC
1. opening of the SVC: 3rd costal cartilage

2. opening of the IVC: 5th costal cartilage
What can a LARGE atrial septal defect (failure to close) cause?
enlargement of the right atrium and ventricle as well as the dialation of the pulmonary trunk
where would one listen to the right tricuspid?
4-5 intercostal space
What is the function of the fibrous ring around the AV oriffice?
resists dialation, which could cause blood to be forced through the valve
what role do the chordae tendenae and the papillary muscles play?
prevent prolapse of the AV valve during systole, and thus prevent regurgitation
When does the atria begin to contract, before or after the ventricles?
before, which draws the cusps together and
what is the general role of the moderator band?
conduction of the heart
where is percussion of the heart done?

What does this do?
3, 4 and 5 intercostal spaces from left anterior axillary line to the right

it defines the size and density of the heart
which embryologic origin does the coronary sinus arise from?
venous sinus
Which embryologic origin does the smooth wall of the right atrium arise from?
venous sinus
At which costal cartilage level do you find the opening of the following?

1. opening of the SVC
2. opening of the IVC
1. opening of the SVC: 3rd costal cartilage

2. opening of the IVC: 5th costal cartilage
What can a LARGE atrial septal defect (failure to close) cause?
enlargement of the right atrium and ventricle as well as the dialation of the pulmonary trunk
where would one listen to the right tricuspid?
4-5 intercostal space
What is the function of the fibrous ring around the AV oriffice?
resists dialation, which could cause blood to be forced through the valve
what role do the chordae tendenae and the papillary muscles play?
prevent prolapse of the AV valve during systole, and thus prevent regurgitation
When does the atria begin to contract, before or after the ventricles?
before, which draws the cusps together and
what is the general role of the moderator band?
conduction of the heart
At which costal cartilage level do you find the pulmonary valve?
3rd
what is the benefit of have pulmonary and arortic sinuses on the valve?
blood sits in them and prevents the cusps from sticking and failing to close
What can a large ventricular septal defect (VSD) cause?
pulmonary disease and high blood pressure

VSDs count for 25% of congenital heart disease
What are the two types of pulmonary stenosus?
Pulmonary vavle stenosis: narrowing of the pulmonary valve

Infundibular pulmonary stenosis: underdeveloped conus arteriosis

Both restrict right ventricle flow
Which has a thicker wall, right or left atrium?
left
What forms the smoothed wall portion of the left atrium?
absorption of parts of teh embryologic pulmonary veins

the rough walled area is from the primordial left atrium
What is a THROMBI?

Where do THROMBI form?

What can this lead to?
1. Immobile clots

2. On the walls of the left atrium

3. they can occlude peripheral ateries --> can lead ischemia --> infaction --> to strokes (CVA)
Where are trebeculae carnae more available, in the right or left ventricle?
left
At what intercostal level do you find the mitral valve?
4th
At what intercostal level do you find the aortic valve?
3rd
what is the functional value of the anastomosis of small branches of coronary arteries?
slows progression of coronary artery disease
What is artherosclerosis?
hardening of the arteries, characterized by lipid deposits in the medium and large sized arteries --> causing narrowing of the arteries
What is angina pectoris?
pain in the substernal region and down th medial side ofthe left arm and forearm - caused by atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries
What is the sinuatrial node?

Where is it located?
pacemaker of the heart

in the right atrium - proximal to the SVC
Where is the AV node located?
posterior inferior region of the interatrial septum... near the opening of the coronary sinus
Put these in the correct order: AV node, AV bundle, SA node, perkinje fibers, Right and Left bundle branches
SA node > AV node > AV bundle > R/L bundle branches > perkinje fibers
what is the average HR given off by the SA node (intrinsic HR)?
70 bpm (pacemaker)
Which branch of the ANS speed up and slows down the HR?
Sympathetic --> speeds up
Parasympathetic --> slows down