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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are mammary glands derived from?
Modified sweat glands -- derived from epithelium
Where are mammary glands loacted?
in the superficial fascia - superficial to the pectoralis major
How many lobes of glandular tissue are there?
15- 20 arranged radially around the nipple
What do the supersory ligaments attach to at both ends?
deeper membranous layer of superficial fascia to the dermis
Where is the retromammary space?
between the superficial fascial and the deep fascia overlying the pec major and serratus anterior
What is the significance of the retromammary space?
allows for movement on the toracic wall
What supplies blood to the mammary gland?
Internal thoracic artery, lateral thoracic and thoracoacromial arteries, and posterior intercostal arteries
What innervates the mammary gland?
the inercostal nerves 4-6
What type of fibers does the nerves innervating the mammary gland contain?
Senory and sympathetic (no motor but the intercostal carries it -just doesnt take it to the mammary)
What is the route of lymph from the nipple?
subareolar lymphatic plexus, (axillary lymph nodes or parasternal nodes or abdominal nodes or conttralateral breast)
Where are breast cancers usually derived from?
epithelial cells of the lactiferous ducts
What is the primary route of spread of cancer in breast tissue?
Mainly through the lymphatic but all the venous system
What appearence does interference with lymph drainage cause in the breast?
edema of skin -- the orange peel appearance
What appearance does fibrosis/shortening or placing traction in the suspensory ligaments?
Leads to the dimpling of skins
What is the consequence of the invasion of a tumor into the retromammary space?
Will fix the breast to the thoracic wall
What are the general functions of the thoracic wall?
1. protection of internal organs
2. aid in respiration
3. provides attachment for muscles
What takes up the majority of the superior thoracic aperture?
2/3 taken by the suprapleural membranes
What covers inferior thoracic aperture?
the diaphragm
What composes the thoracic wall?
1. skin
2. superficial fascia
3. bony elements
4. intercostal muscles
5. endothoracic fascia
What is the endothoracic fascia? where is it the thickest
A layer of deep fascia - called the suprapleural membrane above the 1st rib
What is deep to the endothoracic fascia and adjacent to the lungs?
the parietal pleura
What are the muscles in the thoracic wall?
1. External Intercostal
2. Internal Intercostal
3. Innermost Intercostal
Where does the external interocostal muscles extend from?
from vertebral bodies to the costochondral junction -- muscle doesnt touch sternum - external intercostal membrane does
Where does the internal intercostal muscles extend from?
from the sternum to the angle of the ribs -- do not extend to vertebral body -- the internal intercostal membrane does
What are the 3 subdivisions of the innermost intercostals?
1. innermost
2. subcostal
3. transversus thoracis
Where are the intercostal vein, artery and nerve located?
in the costal groove -- inbetween the interal and innermost muscle layer
What structure is directly deep to the sternum? and deep to that?
Sternum then trachea then esophagus
What are the 3 branches off of the subclavian artery?
1. Vertebral Artery
2. Internal Thoracic
3. Thyrocervical
Where are the subclavian arteries found?
posterior to the anterior scalene muscles
What veins are found in the superior thoracic aperture?
Subclavian veins and internal jugular veins
How many brachiocephalic veins and how many arteries?
2 veins and 1 artery - right side
Where is the subclavian vein found?
anterior to the anterior scalene muscles
What creates the brachiocephalic veins?
the joining of the internal jugular veins and the subclavian veins
What side of the superior thoracic aperture is the thoracic duct found?
The left side only
What is the thoracic duct?
terminal portion of the lymphatic system - empties into the venous system at the junction of teh left internal jugular and left subclavian
What nerves go through the superior thoracic aperture?
the phrenic nerve and vagus nerve - both on right and left
What spinal nerves go into the phrenic?
C3, C4 C5
Where does the diaphragm attach?
xiphoid process of the sternum, costal cartilages and adjacent portions of the inferior 6 ribs, and more superior 2 or 3 lumbar vertebra
Where does the right crus attach? the left crus?
Right- first 3 lumbar vertebra
Left - first 2 lumbar vertebra
What is the blood supply to the diaphragm?
the superior and inferior phrenic arteries, intercostal arteries, and internal thoracic arteries
Where is the vena cava foramen in the diaphragm? at what level? What goes through this opening?
Found in the central tendon at level T8 -- the inferior vena cava
Where is the Esophageal hiatus in the diaphragm? at what level? What goes through this opening?
Not in the central tendon - at Level T10 -- contains the espophagus and vagus nerve
Where is the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm? at what level? What goes through this opening?
At level T12 - Bounded by both crus and the vertebral body. contains - aorta, azygos verin and thoracic duct
What 2 muscles attach up under the thoracic diaphragm?
the psoas major and the quadratus lumborum
What are the other names of the right atrioventicular valve?
The tricuspid
What are the other names of the left atrioventricular valve?
The bicuspid and the mitral
What are the branches off the right coronary artery?
marginal artery and posterior interventricular artery
What does right coronary artery do?
supplies the right atrium, right ventricle and part of the left ventricle
What does the left coronary artery supply?
the left atrium, left ventricle and parts of the right ventricle
Where does the coronary sinus drain?
into the right atrium
Name the veins of the heart that drain into the coronary sinus.
1. Great cardiac vein
2. Posterior vein of left ventricle
3. middle cardiac vein
4. small cardiac vein
Where does the anterior cardiac vein and smallest cardiac vein drain?
into the heart chamber
Where is the base of the heart located?
at the level of the 3rd costal cartilage
Where is the apex of the heart located?
at the 5th intercostal space
Where is the aortic semilunar valve located? Where do you listen?
Location- 3rd intercostal space, post to sternum
Listen - 2nd intercostal space
Where is the pulmonary semilunar valve? Where do you listen?
Location- 3rd costosternal junction
Listen - 2nd intercostal space
Where is the Tricuspid valve located? Where do you listen?
Location- 5th costosternal junction, post to sternum

Listen - lower sternal border