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94 Cards in this Set

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Describe the calvicle in the dog and cat.
Cat: seperate, nonarticular bone

Dog: rudimentary or absent, embedded in brachiocephalicus muscle
What does the spine of the scapula divide?
Lateral scapula into infraspinous and supraspinous fossae
What is the acromion?
End of the spine of the scapula
What is the acromion?
End of the spine of the scapula
What is the caudal projection of the acromion found in the cat?
Suprahamate process
What is the glenoid fossa/cavity and its function?
Cranial process near the glenoid cavity for the attatchment of the biceps branchi muscle
What and where is the greater tubercle?
Projection located craniolateral to the head tf the humerus-point of the shoulder
What is the intertubercular (bicipital) groove?
The sulcus between the greater and lesser humeral tubercles for the biceps brachii tendon
What is the condyle of the humerous?
How many are there per humeri?
Entire distal end of the humerous,

1 per humeri
What arises from the epicondyles of the humerous?
Lateral epicondyle: extensors of the forearm,

Medical Epicondyle: flexors
What foramen is found in canine and feline humeri and what passes through them?
Dog: supratrochlear foramen - nothing passes through

Cat: Supracondylar foramen: medial nerve and bracchial vessels
What and where is the styloid process of the radius?
Distal pointed end of the radius, medial
What is the function of the olecranon/olecranon tuberosity? What is the common name for it?
Serves as a lever arm for the extensor muscle of the elbow.

AKA Point of the elbow
Name the depression of the ulna that articulates with the humerus and its proximal and distal ends.
Trochlear notch (semilunar notch)

Proximal end=anconeal process

Distal end=medial and lateral coronoid processes
What and where is the styloid process of the ulna?
Distal end of the ulna, lateral side
List the parts of the manus from proximal to distal (and the bones of each part)
Carpus (carpal bones),
Metacarpus (metacarpal bones),
Digits (proximal, middle, distal phalanges and associated sesamoid bones)
What does the term carpus designate?
Carpal bones and compound joint formed by these bones or the region between the forearm and metacarpus
Name the bones of the carpus and indicate where they are in each row.
Proximal row from medial to lateral: radial, ulnar and accesory carpal bones,

Distal row: numbered 1-4 from medial to lateral
Which carpal bone is located laterally and palmarily and is considered a landmark?
Acessory carpal bone
List the bones of each digits and their locations.
Proximal middle and distal phalanges (not middle for dew claw),

2 proximal sesamoid bones (1 for dew claw) on palmar side of metacarpophalangeal joints,

1 dorsal sesamoid bone for digit 1-4
What is the fingernail-like structure covering the ungual process?
Horny claw
What is the shelf of the distal phalanx covering the root of the claw?
Ungual crest
What is the digit (P1, P2, 1 proximal sesamoid) +MtC1 that doesn't reach the ground?
Dew claw
What is the configuration of the shoulder (scapulohumeral, humeral) joint?
Ball and socket joint (spheroidal)
What type of motion is allowed by the shoulder joint?
All movements (universal) but mainly flexion and extension
What protects the biceps tendon in the intertubercular groove?
Extension of the shoulder joint capsule (connected) acting as a tendon sheath.
What stablizies the shoulder joint?
No true collateral ligaments, but infraspinatus tendon laterally and subscapularis tendon medially help stabalize
What bones make up the elbow (cubital) joint?
1.Humeral condyle 2.trochlear notch of the ulna
3. head of the radius
What type of joint is the elbow/cubital joint and what action is allowed?
Ginglymus or hinge joint, also compound

Flexion and extension
What powerful ligament binds sides of all the joints of the limb except the shoulder?

How does this effect their movemnt?
Lateral and medial collateral ligaments.

Limits to mainly flexion and extension
What type of joint is the carpus? What movement does it allow?
Compound/composite hinge joint

Flexsion & extension (also gliding and rotation)
List the joints of the carpus and the movement each allows.
Antebrachiocarpal joint: most mostment felxion and extension,

Middle carpal joint: less but considerable flexion and extension,

carpometacarpal joint: very little, mainly glinding,

Intercarpal joints: gliding
List the boundaries of the carpal canal
Carpal bones (covered by palmar carpal fibrocartilage),

accessory carpal bone and flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament)
List the joints of the digits and the bones they are between.
Metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints: metacarpal bone, proximal phalanx,

Proximal interdigital (PIP): P1 and P2,

Distal interdigital (DIP or "claw): P2 & P3
What bones are located on the palmar side of the metacarpophalangeal joints?
2 palmar sesamoids (main digits 2-5), 1 for dew claw
What ligament extends from proximal P2 to dorsal P3?
Dorsal elastic ligament (unique to carnivores)
What flexor muscles effect the interphalangeal joints?
Prox. IP: DDF and SDF

Distal IP: DDF only
What is the function of the elsatic dorsal ligament of the cats digits?
Oppose DDF, keeping claw retracted ("sheathing the claw")
What local thickening of the deep fascia hold tendons in place?
Retinaculum
In which layer are the cutaneous muscles located?
In the superficial fascia
What is the function of the cutaneous muscles?
Twitch skin, shoo flies away
What muscles connect the thoracic limb to the head, neck and trunk?
Extrinsic muscle of the thoracic limb
Name 5 of the 8 extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb
Trapezius
Omotransversarius
Brachiocephalicus
Superficial Pectoral
Deep Pectoral
Latissimus dorsi
Serratus Ventralis
Rhomboideus
Which extrinsic muscle supports the weight of the trunk?
Serratus ventralis
(forms a sling for the trunk)
What muscles originate and insert on the bones of the thoracic limb?
Intrinsic muscles of the limb
What muscles replace collateral ligaments for the shoulder joint?
Subscapular, infraspinatus, supraspinatus, biceps brachii muscles
What is the common insertion of all 4 heads of the triceps brachii muscle?
Olecranon
Where does the biceps brachii muscle originates?
Supragelnoid tuberosity
What nerve innervates the triceps and other extensors of the elbow, carpus and digits?
Radial nerve
How are the forearm muscles groups?
Craniolateral antebrachial muscles=extensors of digits and carpus

Caudal antebrachial muscles=flexors of digits and carpus
Where do most of the extensors of the digits/carpus arise?
On or near lateral (extensor) epicondyle
What muscles arise/originate from the medial epicondyle of humerus?
Caudal antebrachial muscles
What innervates the caudal antebrachial muscles?
Median and ulnar
Where does the superficial digital flexor SDF and DDF insert?

What is the clinical significance of this?
SDF: Middle phalanges
DDF: Distal phalanges

DDF affects the distal interphalangeal joint, SDF doesnt
Where are most of the vessels and nerves of the arm?
Medial side of the arm

For protection
List main arteries to the forelimb and their location.
Subclavian artery (medial to first rib)

Axullary a. (axilla)

Subscapular a. (along causal scapula)

Brachial a. (arm)

Common interosseous a. (last branch of brachial)

Median (forearm)

Digital arteries (paw)
What are the locations of the cephalic and accessory carpal veins of the manus?

Where do they join and continue as the cephalic vein?
Cephalic: palmer paw
Accessory cephalic: Dorsal paw

Meet above carpus to travel cranial on the forearm
Can the lymph nods of the thoracic limb be palpated?
Axillary: No

Accessory: can if present

Superficial cervial: yes
What innervates the cutaneous trunci muscle?
Lateral thoracic nerve
What nerves does SS-MAR-MU stand for and from what areas of the brachial plexus do they arise?
SS: cranial (supraspinatus, subscapularis)

MAR: middle (musculocutaneous, axillary, radial)

MU: caudal (median, ulnar)
Where does the radial nerve become superficial and thus in danger of damage?
Laterally under the triceps brachii muscle
What are th 2 cutaneous areas of the forpaw?
Dorsal paw: radial nerve

Abaxial 5th (lateral) digits: ulnar nerve
What does the lateral view highlight?
Cranial and caudal or dorsal and palmar/plantar surfaces of bones
What are the radiographic landmarks for the lateral side of the limb?
Spine of the scapula,
Greater tubercle (humerous),
Distal ula,
Acessory Carpal bone
What are the radiographic landmarks for the medial side of the thoracic limb?
Radial carpal bone,
Dew claw
What are the caudal/palmar landmarks of the forelimb?
Head of the humerous,
olecranon,
acessory carpal
What does the craniocaudal or dorsopalmar view highlight?
Medial and lateral structures of the limb
Name 2 nomral structures that can be mistaken for fractures of the forearm
Anconeal process of ulna,
sesamoid bones of digits or lateral collateral ligament of elbow
On what side of the limb is the acessory carpal bone?
Lateral and palmar
Do you look for radiographic changes in the cartilage in OC?
No, can't see. check subchondral bone
List 2 of 4 common sites of OC (osteochondrosis)
shoulder,
medial humeral condyle,
medial and lateral femoral condyle,
proximal medial trochlea
What is the #1 site for osteochondrosis in the dog?
Caudal aspect of head of the humerous
Describe osteochondrosis appearance compared to normal
Normal: smooth and round with no flattening

OCD: Flattening or cratering with chondral bone sclerosis (thickening) / +- joint mouse
What can the cat's clavicle be mistaken for in a lateral radiograph?
Bone in esophagus
Where is osteochondrosis of the elbow located?
Medial condyle of the humerous
What can premature closure of either proximal or distal radial physis cause?
Subluxation of the humeral-radial joint
What is ununited anconeal process?
Failure of anconeal process to unit with ulna after 6 mo. age
What is fragmented medial coronoid process?
Improper development and fragmentation of cartilaginous precursor
How are medial and later epicondyles of the humerus differentiated in a lateral radiograph?
Medial "squared" and extend further caudally than rounded lateral
What is the location of most fractures in the humerous?
Shaft (diaphysis)
What hinders retraction of the median nerve and brachial artery during surgery in the cat?
They pass through supracondylar foramen
What can cause premature closure of a growth plate?
Injury to physis (growth plate)
What happens if there is a premature closure of the distal ulnar physis?
Cranial and medial curvature of the radius carpal valgus and subluxation of the elbow
What type of fractures often occur in the radius and ulna?
Open
How are simple fractures of the ulna and radius often treated?
With external casts
HOw are olecranon fractures treated and why?
Requires tension band appliance (2IM pins and figure 8 wire) to counteract pull of triceps brachii muscle
What is the first thing you should think about when treating trochlear notch fractures?
Need exact anatomical reduction because articular
What is a Monteggia fracture?
Fracture of the proximal 1/3 of the ulna with radial head luxation
What is the "quick" that bleeds if a horny claw is cut too short?
Artery in the dermis over ungual process
How is cutting the quick prevented when trimming pigmented and unpigmented claws?
Unpigmented: dont cut into visible pink cone,

Pigmented: shave off layers untill white area reached (just distal to quick) then use 1st to judge the rest
What 2 methods of declawing ensure removal of ungual crest?
Remove all to P3 or all (including ungual crest) but the base/flexor process of P3
How is dew claw operation preformed basically?
Guillotine nail clipper: blade in dorsal-distal interphalageal joint and other distal to digital pad
How is dew claw removed in a neonate (new born)?
Prep, cut dewclaw from metatarsal bones, single absorbable suture
What, if damaged, causes luxation or subluxation of the carpal joint?
Rupture of the palmar carpal ligament and the joint capsule.