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60 Cards in this Set

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the extrinsic pathway for clot formation is initiated by:
non-blood factors.
most damaged cells release:
tissue thromboplastin (factor 3) or tissue factor.
the tissue factor or tissue thromboplastin released from damaged cells initiates:
the extrinsic pathway.
tissue thromboplastin activates factor:
7 (proconvertin)
after tissue thromboplastin activates factor 7, the next step is what?
formation of factor 7 complex.
the formation of factor 7 complex consists of?
activated factor 7, tissue thromboplastin, calcium ions, tissue phospholipids released from damaged cells.
factor 7 leads into
the common pathway
in the common pathway for clot formation, factor 7 or factor 8 complex activate what?
factor 10 (stuart-prower factor)
after factor 10 is activated, the next step is waht
formation of factor 5 complex, also known as prothrombin activator
factor 5 (prothrombin activator) consists of:
activated factor 10, factor 5 (proaccelerin), calcium ions, platelet (PF3) or tissue phospholipids.
prothrombin activator (V complex) converts
prothrombin (inactive factor 2) to thrombin (active factor 2)
thrombin is a ..... that converts....
protease that converts fibrinogen (factor 1) into fibrin monomers.
thrombin also activates
factor 13 (fibrin stabilizing factor)
factor 13 (fibrin stabilizing factor) polymerizes..
the fibrin monomers into long insoluble fibrin threads.
the extrinsic pathway is much faster than
the intrinsic pathway
platelets contain:
actomyosin
what is actomyosin:
contractile proteins of muscle cells.
within one hour after clot formation, platelets do what?
contract to form a more compact plug
the fluid expressed from a clot is known as
serum
serum may be defined as what
plasma minus the clottin proteins or the fluid portion of the clotted blood
healing of the vessel wall is stimulated by
platelet derived growth factor (pdgf)
the pdgf (platelet derived growth factor) is released by
platelets during degranulation
PDFG platelet derived growth factor stimulates
fibroblast and smooth muscle cells to rebuild the vessel wall.
endothelial cells do what
proliferate to rebuild the endothelium as well.
Fibrinolysis is what:
the mechanism employed to dissolve clots that form in the body
the enzyme plasmin does what
digests the fibrin threads
plasmin is formed from
plasminogen which is a normal blood protein
substances that convert plasminogen to plasmin are known as
plasminogen activators
in the body, the plasminogen activators are?
thrombin, activated factor 12, adn TPA (tissue plasminogen activator).
What has been used clinically to dissolve blood clots following a heart attack.
streptokinase and TPA
what was recently approved to treat strokes associated with blood clots?
TPA not Streptokinase
TPA is produced by
endothelial cells
TPA will dissolve
small clots if they should form in the vascular system
What is being produced by genetic engineering:
TPA
what is an embolus?
a moving clot
a thrombus is
a stationary clot
an intravascular clot does not normally occur unless
the vascular system is damaged.
prostacyclin is:
a prostaglandin produced by endothelial cells that repels platelets.
prostacyclin is also known as
PGI2
If platelets do not stick to endothelial cells then ...
they will not cause clotting
What produces heparin?
basophils and mast cells.
heparin activates:
antithrombin 3.
antithrombin 3 will inactivate
thrombin if small amts are produced.
thrombin is absorbed onto ...
fibrin threads, this insures that clot remains localized.
What will impair clotting?
vitamin K deficiency
Vitamin K is required to make:
factors 2, 7, 9, 10.
factors 2,7,9,10 are made where
in the liver
Liver diseases such as hepatitis and cirrhosis do what
impair clotting b/c of a deficiency of clotting factors 2,7,9,10
Aspirin does what
inhibits prostaglandin synthesis and therefore prevents platelets from making thromboxane A2. (reduces liklihood of clot forming)
Heparin is an
anticoagulant.
heparin is given by IV to patients to
prevent clotting, it can also be added to blood in test tube to prevent clotting
Coumarin may be given...
in tablet form to prevent inhibit clotting.
coumarin competes with the action of
Vitamin K
Coumarin is marketed as
coumadin
Warfarin is the
patented name of coumarin, and is major ingredient in some rat poisons.
What are anticoagulants that bind to calcium?
Oxalate, citrate, and EDTA.
Oxalate, citrate, and EDTA can be used in test tube to
inhibit clotting
Citrate is added to blood drown for transfusion purposes to
inhibit clotting
what is a deficiency of platelets called:
thrombocytopenia
what will cause thrombocytopenia?
any condition that damages bone marrow.