Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/92

Click to flip

92 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Muscles make things happen. Together with bones, they form the _ and _ that make an animal “act”.
movers, levers
Muscles function to _ movement (posture)
restrain
Muscles function as part of the viscera (4)
Digestive tract
Secretory glands
Respiratory tract
Circulatory system
In the _ muscles produce the waves that move and mix food
digestive tract
muscles control the passage of secretions for the _
secretory glands
In the _ muscles regulate the passage of air
respiratory tract
In the _ muscles produce the rhythmic contracts that pump blood through our body
Circulatory System
Muscles of the circulatory system either ______ or _______blood vessels to control blood flow.
dilate, constrict
Muscles generate _ (shivering)
heat
Functions of Muscles:
make things happen
restrict movement
function as part of the viscera
generate heat
Muscles make _ and _ that is detectable by sharks and other fish.
noise, low voltage electricity
Some fish have evolved stacks of muscles used to produce _ for defensive and offensive (stunning prey) purposes
high voltage electricity
Muscles Defined by location: (2)
somatic muscles
visceral muscles
Muscles Defined by CNS control: (2)
voluntary muscles
involuntary muscles
muscles defined by microscopic properities: (2)
striated muscles
non striated muscles
Muscles defined by histological properities
skeletal muscle
cardiac muscle
smooth muscle
muscles that move bone or cartilage
somatic muscle
muscles that control functions in other tissues
visceral muscle
muscles under conscious control
voluntary muscle
muscles under subconscious control
involuntary muscle
alternating light and dark banding pattern
striated muscle
no repeating pattern
non-striated muscle
somatic, voluntary, striated
skeletal muscle
visceral, involuntary, striated
cardiac muscle
visceral, involuntary, non-striated
smooth muscle
Characteristics of skeletal muscle: (3)
- multi-nucleated
- long cells attached end to end forming long compostie fibers
- each cell is filled with many long myofibrils
_ is a synonym for muscle cell
myofiber
All muscle cells have many of the organelles common to most _, with a few specializations
eukaryotic cells
plasma membrane of muscle cells
sarcolemma
smooth ER of muscle cells
sarcoplasmic reticulum
connective tissue covering around individual muscle cells
endomysium
wraps a group of muscle cells into a fascicle
perimysium
the perimysium wraps a group of muscle cells into a _
fascicle
connective tissue covering of the entire muscle organ
epimysium
"whole muscle"
A single muscle (“whole muscle”) is a collection of several
fascicles
muscle fasciles are bundles of
individual muscle cells
The connective tissue that wraps each fascile extends beyond the end of the muscle to connect to the bones as _ (dense connective tissue)
tendons
Tendons: Connective tissue wrapping of the muscle connects with the _ of the bone
periosteum
Muscle cells are also know as _
muscle fibers
Muscle cells are almost totally filled with long cylindrical structures arranged in parallel cables called _
myofibrills
myofibrills are composed of _ and _
actin and myosin
Keys to muscle contraction: (4)
- skeletal muscle cells must be activated by a nerve
- Nerve activation increases Ca+ influx in muscle cells
- Ca = contraction ; no Ca = relaxation
- contraction ends when the nerve stops stimulating the muscle cell
Ca = _
No Ca = _
contraction
relaxation
specialized nerve cells that stimulate skeletal muscle to contract
Motor neurons
point of attachment between a motor neuron and a muscle cell
neuromuscular junction
Stimulation of the muscle cells causes release of calcium which is stored in organelles called _
sarcoplasmic reticula
The electrical nerve impulse is carried into the cell by _ the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Transverse (T) tubules
Contraction is a “_” that is initiated by calcium
sliding filament mechanism
_ form between the myosin and binding sites on the actin filaments (which are exposed by calcium binding)
cross bridges
the binding causes the _ to “slide” along the myosin molecules
actin filaments
actin filament sliding effectively shortens each _______ and collectively the entire muscle, resulting in movement.
sarcomere
_ are repeating units composed of thick (_) and thin (_) myfilaments
sarcomeres, myosin, actin
The binding and bending of crossbridges (resulting in muscle contraction) requires _
energy
Muscles require energy to _ and _
contract and relax
_ is the energy source used for muscle contractions.
ATP
ATP is made in the _
mitochondria
ATP causes the _ to form a cross bridge and to bend
myosin head
Another ATP molecule must bind so that the cross bridge _ the actin.
releases
cells =
fibers
actin, myosin =
fibrills
_ help cardiac muscles to act together as a single unit.
gap junctions
Characteristics of cardiac muscle (5)
- only occurs in the heart
- short branches cells
- mononucleated
- joined together into sheets of muscle tissue by intercalated disks
- may contract without neural regulation
cardiac muscle is striated / non-striated?
striated
Characteristics of smooth muscles: (4)
- mononucleated
- short and spindle shaped
- non-striated
- electrically coupled to allow the sheets to function as a single unit.
Muscles can be categorized on the basis of the fiber's ability to _ and _ a generated force.
establish, sustain
for postural support, axial and appendicular muscles in amphibians and reptiles (rare in mammals)
Tonic fibers
Characteristics of tonic fibers: (3)
- slow contraction
- low force
- long duration
_ fibers- somatic muscles
twitch fibers
characteristics of twitch fibers
- fast contraction
- short duration
_ - muscle lever system
bone
_ - relatively fixed point of muscle attachment (_)
origin, head
_ - relatively movable point of muscle attachment (_)
insertion, slip
bend on part relative to another around the joint
flexors
straighten one part relative to another around the joint
extensors
draw the limb toward the midline of the body
adductors
draw the limb away from the midline of the body
abductors
close the jaw
levators (adductors)
open the jaw
depressors (abductors)
extend a part of the body
protraction
returns a part of the body
retraction
rotates the palm or sole up
supinators
rotate the palm or sole down
pronators
close openings (sphincter muscles)
constrictors
further open passages
dilators
A muscle is considered homologous if it fits 4 criterias
- muscle attachment (head & slip similarities)
- functional similarities
- similarity of nervous innervation
- embryonic origin
adult muscle segments derived from a myotome
myomeres
connective tissue partitions between adjacent myomeres
myosepta
_ - connective tissue partiton which divides myomeres into dorsal (_) muscles and ventral (_) muscles
horizontal septum, epaxial, hypaxial
Each myomere is innervated by a single spinal nerve which sends a branch to the epaxial myomere (_) and a branch to the hypaxial myomere (_)
dorsal ramus, ventral ramus
In tetrapods epaxial muscles are present as a single muscle mass, _
dorsalis trunci
In mammals there are _ divisions of epaxial muscles and _ divisions of hypaxial muscles
3, 4
3 epaxial muscle divisions in the mammal
- transversospinalis group
- longissimus group
- iliocostalis group