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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The first tissues appear when these cells start to organize themselves into layers, first two, and soon three strata called the ___________ .
primary germ layers
the three layers are called ___________.
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
______________ is an outer layer that gives rise to the epidermis and nervous system.
the inner layer that gives a rise to the mucous membranes of the digestive and respiratory tract and to the digestive glands, among other things.
a layer of more loosely organized cells.
mesoderm eventually turnsto gelatinous tissue is called __________.
a chemical such as formalin that prevents decay
most tissue are cut into very thin slices called ______. these sections are typically only one or two cells thick, to allow the light of a microscope to pass through and to reduce the confusion of the scope to pass through and to reduce the confusion of the image thst would result from many layers of overlapping cells.
histological section
________ reduces a three dimensional structural to a two dimensional slice.
sectioning a tissue
a tissue cut in the long is called a __________________.
longitudinal section
one cut perpendicular direction is ________________.
transverse section
a section cut at angle between a longitudinal and cross section is an ________________.
oblique section
__________ consists of a flat sheet of closely adhering cells, one or more cell thick, with the upper surface, lines body cavities, forms the external and internal space in the body. It allows no room for blood vessels however, almost lie on a layer of loose connective tissue and depend on its blood vessesls for nourishment and waste removal.
epithelial tissue
Between an epithelium and the underlying connective tissue is called _________ which is usually too thin to be visible with the light microscope.
basement membrane
__________ has only one layer of cells, although this is a somewhat debateable point in the pseudostratified type.
simple epithelium
simpole epitelia are named for the shapes of their cells called:
simple squamous, simple columnar, simple cuboidal
square or round cells
simple cuboidal
thin scaly cells
simple squamous
tall narrow cells
simple columnar
not all cell reach the free surface; the shorter cells are covered over by the taller ones called :
pseudostratified columnar
mucus is secreted by wineglass-shaped called _____________.
goblet cells
____________ ranged from 2 to 20 or more layers of cells, with some cells resting directly on others and only the deepest layer resting on the basement membrane.
stratified epithelia
Three of the stratified epithelia are named for the shapes of their cells:
stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal and stratified columnar epithelia
___________________ is rare, seen only in places where two other epithelial types meet, as in limited regions of the pharynx, larynx, and canal, and male urethra.
stratified columnar epithelium
The separation from the surface is called ___________.
exfoliation or desquamation
_________________ found on the skin surface, is covered with a layer of compact, dead squamous cells.
The tongue, esophagus, vagina, and a few other internal membranes are covered with the ______________.
____________ typically consists mostly of fibers and ground substance, wiith widely separated cells.
connective tissue
The function of connecive tissue is _________________________.
Binding of organs, support, physical protection, immune protection, movement, storage, heat production, and transport.
These are large, flat cells that often appear tapered at the ends and show slender, wispy branches. Producing the fibers and ground substance that form the matrix of the tissue.
These are large phagocytic cells that wander through the connective tissues, where they engulf and destroy bacteria, other foreign particles and dead or dying cells of our own body.
__________ travel briefly in the bloodstream, then crawl out through the capillary walls and spend most of their time in the connective tissues.
Certain lymphocytes turn into plasma cells when they detect foreign agents is _____________.
these cells are found especially alongside blood vessels, secrete a chemical called heparin that inhibits blood clotting, and one called histamine that increase blood flow by dilating blood vessels.
mast cells
these are large rounded cells fillled mainly with a droplet of triglyceride.
Three TYPES of protein FIBERS are found in fibrous connective tissues called :
Collagenous, Reticular fibers, and Elastic fibers
Fibers made of _______, are tough and flexible and resist stretching. _________ is about 25% of the body;s protein, the most abundant type.
_________ are thin collagen fibers coated with glycoprotein. They form a spongelike framework for such organs as the spleen and lynph nodes.
Reticular fibers
__________ are thinner than collagenous fibers, and they branch and rejoin each other along their course. They are made of a protein called _____.
Elastic fibers
Amid the cells and fibers in some tissue sections, there appears to be a lot empty space. This space occupied by the featureless _________________.
Ground Substance
_____________ is a long polysaccharide composed of unusual disaccharides called amino sugars and uronic acid.
The most abundant GAG which is abundant in blood vessels and bones and is repsoncible for the relative stiffness of cartilage is _______________.
__________ is another gigantic moecule which is shaped sonewhat like a test tube brush, with a central core of protein and bristlike outgrowths composed of GAGs.
____________ are protein- carbohydrate complexes that bind plasma membrane proteins to collagen and proteoglycans outside the cell.
Adhesive glycoproteins
_____________, much of the space is occupied by ground substance, which is dissolved out of the tissue during histological fixation and leaves empty space in prepared tissue sections.
loose connective tissue
___________ is a fiber occupies more space than the cells and groun substancem and appears closely packed in tissue sections.
dense connective tissue
________ exhibits loosely organized fibers, abundant blood vessels, and a lot of seemingly empty space.
Areolar Tissue
________ is a mesh of r________ fibers and fibroblasts. It forms the structural framework of such organs and tissues as the lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus, and bone narrow.
Reticular tissue
_______ is a tissue in which ________ are the dominant cell ty. _________ may also occur singly or in small clusters in areolar tissue.
Adipose Tissue or fat
________ is named for two properties. (1) the collagen fibers are closely packed and leave relatively little open space and (2) the fiber are parallel to each other.
Dense regular connective tissue
__________________ is thick bundles of collagen and relatively little room for cells and ground substance, but the collagen bundles run in random directions.
Dense irregular connective tissues
_______________ a supportive connective tissue with a flexible rubbery matrix. It gives shape to the external ear, the tip of the nose, and the larynx.
Cells called ________________ secretes the matrix and surround themselves with it until they become trapped in little cavities called __________.
Chrondroblasts ,
_________________ is named for its clear, glassy microscopic appearance, which stems from the usually invincible fineness of its collagen fiber.
Hyaline Cartilage
_______________ is names for its conspicious _______________ and ____________(B)____ for its coarse, roadily visible bundles of collagen.
Elastic Cartilage
(B) Fibrocartilage
________ consist of neurons or nerve cells, and a much greater number of neuroglia.
nervous tissue
__________ is consisted of elongated cells tht are specialized to contract in response to stimulation; thus its primary job is to exert physical force on other tissues and organs.
muscular tissue
___________ lacks striations and is involuntary and are fusiform and relatively short. They have only muscle are found in the iris of the eye and in the skin.
Smooth muscles
____________ is more like the snap on a pair of jeans, It is a patch that holds cells together and enables a tissue to resisit mechanical stress, bit does not totally encircle s cell.
Most embryonic and childhoof growth occurs by ___________, tissue growth through cell multiplication.