Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

184 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which ribs are true, false, floating?
true: 1-7
Where do true ribs attach?
vertebrae to sternum
What do the false ribs attach to?
cartilages of ribs superior
What rib cartilages are joined to form the infrasternal angle?
What is the superior throasic aperture bounded by?
1st thorasic vertebra, 1st pair of ribs, supreior border of manubrium
What closes the inferior throasic aperture
the diaphragm
What does the head of the rib articulate with?
inferior and superior costal facets of adj thorasic vertebrae
What does the tubercle of the rib articulate with?
the costal facet of transverse process of the vertebra of the same number.
What does the sternal end of the rib connect to?
the cartilage and then sternum
What is the costal groove developed from?
the pull of intercostal muscle fibers
In older people, what can fuse and form a synostosis?
manubriosternal and xiphisternal joints.
What is the sternal foramen?
failure of fusion between halves of the sternal bars
Where do ribs rotate?
1-7 costotransverse joints
Where do ribs glide?
8-10 costotransverse joints
What ribs do not articulae with transverse processes?
11 and 12
What are costochondral joints?
primary carilaginous joints - no mvmt
What are interchondral joints?
plane synovial joints (btwn costal cartilages 6-9)
provide indirect anchorage to sternum
lower true ribs and upper false (7-10)
What are sternocostal joints?
between upper 7 costal cartilage and sternum
1st joint is cartilaginous
2-7 are synovial plane joints.
What is the bucket handle mvmt?
lateral most part of ribs are elevated and transverse diameter of thorax increases
What causes the increase in the A-P diameter?
ribs elevated at the neck (esp 2-6) - pump handle
What direction do the external intercostal muscles run?
inferior medial direction
What do the external intercostal muscles do?
elevate ribs during inspiration
Where do the internal intercostal muscles run?
Only on very anterior most end of vertebra ( depress ribs, right angle to external)
Where are the innermost intercostal muscles found?
only on the lateral wall
What do the scalene muscles do?
insert on upper 2 ribs and elevate ribs for deep breaths
Where do the levator costae run?
transverse process to angle of ribs, elevate during inspiration and support
What innervates the intermediate layer of back muscles?
the ventral rami
What arteries supply the thorasic wall?
the aorta, posterior intercostal arteries, internal thorasic
Where do you perform thoracocentesis?
superior part of rib
What innerviates the diaphragm?
2 phrenic nerves
Where do the phrenic nerves originate?
branches of the cervial plexus in the neck (arise from anterior rami of C3,C4, C5.)
What are the superficial extrinsic back muscles?
levator scapulae
Latissimus dorsi
all V rami
What are the intermediate extrinsic back muscles?
serratus (respiratory, v.rami)
What do the intrinsic back muscles do?
maintain posture and control mvmts of the vertebral column and head
What are the intrinsic back muscles?
erector spinae
minor deep layer
dorsal rami
Where does the splenius muscle run? What does it do?
C7-T3 spines and inserts into skull and cervial transverse processes
extends head, ipsilateral bend of head
What is the spinalis?
most medial column of erector spinae, from spines of lower thoracic and upper lumbar to spines of upper thorasic
Where is longissimus?
intermediate in erector spinae, transverse process and ribs
Where is the iliocostalis?
Most lateral column, run to angles of ribs and cervial transverse processes
What are the transversospinalis muscles?
Where do the semispinalis muscles run?
from thorasic and cervical transverse processes to skull (4-6 v)
Where do the multifidus run?
sacrum to spines (2-4 v)
Where do the rotators run?
transverse processes to junction of lamina and spine (1-2 v)
What is the most superior of the neurocostal bundle?
the veins
Where do the intercostal nerves come from?
Ventral ramus from T1-T11
What pathways run in the intercostal nerves?
somatic motor (intercostal muscles)
somatic sensory (dermatomes)
postgang symp fibers to periphery (only to sweat glands, erector pili, not for respiration)
What is carried in the lateral cutaneous branch?
somatic sensory and sympathetic
What is carried in the anterior cutaneous branch?
somatic sensory and sympathetic
Where is somatic motor?
only in intercostal nerves for muscles
Where does the anterior IC artery originate?
internal thorasic aretery, musculophrenic arteries (only lower spaces)
Can you survive w/o the diaphragm?
How does the diaphragm contract?
by flattening
thorax becomes larger=lower p
abdomen is smaller=higher p
What are the 2 parts of the diaphragm?
peripheral muscular part
central tendon
What is aponeurotic?
no contractile forces
central tendon
What is the central tendon fused with?
the inferior surface of the pericardium
What are the 3 parts of the muscular part of the diaphragm?
sternal costal lumbar
Where does the right crus origniate?
first 3 lumbar vertebra
Where does the left crus originate?
first 2 lumbar vertebrae
What passes over the aorta?
the median arcuate ligament
What is constricted during contraction of the diaphragm?
the esophagus, (also: vagal trunks, esophageal branches of left gastric vessels_
Where is the aortic hiatus?
posterior to diaphragm, doesn't pierce diaphragm, no effect on blood flow. Also: thorasic duct and azygos vein
Where is the venal caval foramen?
central tendon at T8-T9
Contraction of diaphragm does what to iVC?
widens the lumen
also: r. phrenic nerve, lymphatic vessels
Motor innervation to the diaphragm is...
Solely via the PRENIC NERVE C3, 4, 5
Sensory innveration to the diaphragm is...
via the phrenic nerve to central portions AND intercostal nerves to peripheral parts
Where is autonomic control of the diaphragm?
in the brain stem
What supplies blood to the diaphragm?
pericardiacophrenic art.
musculophrenic ar.
sup phrenic art.
inferior phrenic art.
What is carried in the phrenic nerves?
somatic motor, somatic sensory, sympathetics (but does not innerv diaphragm)
Invagination of what develops lungs?
pericardioperitoneal canals
What are the two layers of the pleurae (serous sacs investing the lungs)
parietal layer
visceral layer
Which layer of the lungs is somatic (body wall)
Parietal layer - outer layer
Which layer of the lungs is autonomic?
the visceral layer
Where are the two layers of the lung continuous?
at the root
What is the pleural cavity?
potential space
contains thin layer of serous pleural fluid
What is the parital pleural derived from?
embryonic somatopleure (somatic=sharp pain)
What is the visceral pleura derived from?
embryonic splanchnopleure (autonomic)
What holds lungs open?
surface tension of parietal and visceral layers
What are the four parts of the parietal pleura?
costal (body wall adj to ribs)
What are the lines of reflection?
lines along where the parietal pleura changes direction
Where are the three lines of reflection?
What is the costodiaphragmatic recess?
potential space
diaphragmatic pleura contacts costal pleura
What is the costomediastinal recess?
potential space
costal pleura contacts mediastinal pleura
How big are the lungs when they collapse
1/3 their normal size
What separates the right and left lungs?
heart and great vessels (middle mediastinum)
Are the right and left lungs in the same pleural sac?
NO they are in different sacs
not like the testes
Which lung has 3 lobes?
and 2 fissures?
Is there a functional relationship between the number of lobes?
What covers the apex?
cervical pleura
Where is the costal surface of the lungs?
adj to the sternum, costal cartilages, and ribs
Where is the anterior border of the lungs?
where costal and mediastinal surfaces meet anteriorly and overlap the heart
Where is the posterior border of the lungs?
where costal and mediastinal surfaces meet posteriorly - broad and rounded
What does the root of the lung refer to?
structures contained in the pulmonary sleeve and entering the hilum of the lung
What does the hilum of the lung refer to?
the area where structures forming the root of the lung actually touch lung tissue
Where is the pulmonary ligament?
where the mediastinal pleura passes laterally as a double layer, immediately anterior to the esophagus
What structures form the root of the lung?
atery superior
bronchus posterior
vein 1 ant, 1 pos
What leaves impressions of the left lung?
thorasic aorta
common carotid
What leaves impressions on the right lung?
brachiocephalic v
azygos v
superior vena cava
inferior vena cava
(all veins!)
What supports the trach and bronchi?
C shaped cartilaginous rings
Which bronchi enters the hila of the lungs?
main (primary) bronchi
What does the main bronchi divide into?
secondary bronchi
What supplies the bronchopulmonary segments?
tertiary bronchi
How are bronchopulmonary segments shaped?
pyramid - apex toward lung root and base at pleural surface
What is the largest division of a lob?
bronchopulmonary segments
What separates the bronchopulmonary segments?
What supplies the bronchopulmonary segment?
segmental bronchus and pulmonary artery (independently)
What are bronchopulmonary segments named for?
segmental bronchus
What drains bronchopulmonary segments?
intersegmental pulmonary veins (in CT between segments)
What are surgically resectable?
bronchopulmonary segments
Where do pulmonary arteries run?
parallel to the bronchi, usu on ant aspect of corresponding bronchus
Where do pulmonary veins run?
independent courses from arteries and bronchi
What supplies blood for nutrition to the root, supporting tissues, and visceral pleura of the lung?
bronchial arteries
Where do left bronchial arteries arise?
from the thorasic aorta
Where do the right bronchial arteries arise?
either a posterior intercostal a, or left bronchial a
What do bronchial arteries provided branches to?
the upper esophagus, then follow along posterior aspects of main bronchi
What anastomose in walls of bronchioles
bronchial a and pulmonary a
What drains blood from bronchial a?
bronchial veins and pulmonary v
Where does the right bronchial v drain? the left?
right: azygos
left: hemiazygos
What are pulmonary plexuses?
networks located anterior and posterior to root of lungs
What do pulmonary plexuses contain?
parasymp fibers from vagus nerve
symp fibers from symp trunks
Where are parasympathetic ganglion cells located?
in plexuses and along branches of the bronchial tree
Parasympathetics are what to glands of the bronchial tree?
bronchoconstrictor, vasodilator, secretomotor
Sympathetics are opposite
What is the pericardium?
fibrous sac surrounding the heart and roots of the great vessels
What does the fibrous pericardium fuse with?
SVC, ascending aorta, pulmonary arteries
central tendon
What attaches the pericardium to the sternum?
2 sternocardial ligaments
What is the pertrachial fascia and where does it go?
spreads infection
from next, descends to fuse with anterior surface of pericardium
Posteriorly where does the pericardium attach?
tracheal bifurcation and main bronchi (by CT)
What overlaps the pericardium?
2 pleural sacs and the lungs
Where the pleural sacs deviate, where does the pericardium contact?
the posterior surface of the sternum and 4 and 5 left intercostal spaces
What does the pericardium contact posteriorly?
esophagus, descending aorta, main bronchi
Laterally what happens to the pericardium?
the mediastinal pleura drapes over with the phrenic nerve and pericardiacophrenic a and v sandwiched between pleura and pericardium
What is the fibrous pericardium?
outer layer of dense CT of pericardium
What is the inner serous part include?
parietal layer and visceral
What is in the form of an enclosed space with a potentail space?
the serous part
Where is the potential space?
between the parietal and visceral layers=
pericardial cavity
What is very loosely attached?
serous, contains fatty layer with blood vessels and myocardium
What is the order of structures surrounding the heart?
the fibrous pericardium
inner serous layer, includes:
pericardial cavity
visceral (epicardium)
Which layer is inelastic?
fibrous pericardium
retains, limits
If blood fills cavity pressure is put on heart - cardiac temponade- heart can no longer pump
What is closely adherent to the fibrous pericardium?
parietal layer of the serour pericardium
What is aka epicardium?
the visceral layer of the serous pericardium
What is under the epicardium?
loose CT with fat and blood vessels
Which area does not have epicardium?
the posterior between VC and pulmonary v, where myocardium contacts fibrous pericardium
What is the layer w/o epicardium called?
oblique sinus
Where is the transverse sinus?
space between arteriole end of heart and venue end. betweem SVC amd pulmonary veins - surgeon can tie off
What gives blood supply to pericardium?
pericardacophrenic arteries,
musculo phrenic arteries
branches of aorta (bronchial, esophageal, sup phrenic) and coronary arteries (to visceral layer only_
Where do the coronary arteries go?
to the visceral layer only
What supplies the venous drainage of the heart?
peri cardia co phrenic v
internal thorasic v
azygos system
What carries somatic sensory innervation to the heart?
phrenic nerves
to fibrous and parital layers
Where does visceral sensory of the heart go?
to the epicardium via cardia plexuses (autonomics)
What are the 2 parts of the right atrium?
sinus venarum
pectinate muscles
What is the sinus venarum and where is it found?
smooth thinwalled posterior part - receives VC and coronary sinus - r. atria
What is the sinus venarum derived from?
the embryonic sinus venosus
What divides the sinus venarum from the pectinate muscles?
the crista terminalis
Where are the pectinate muscles found?
What divides the right atrium from the left?
the interatrial septum
What was the fossa ovalis?
used so blood can bypass pulmonary system
What happens if the atrial septal is too large?
allows oxygenated blood to go the the right atrium and overloads the pulmonary system, enlarges the right side of heart and pulmonary trunk
Where does the blood in the right ventricle come from?
the right atrium, through the right atrioventricular orifice : guarded by the tricuspid valve
Where is the tricuspid valve, and what does is guard
between r atria and ventricle, the r. atrioventricular orifice
What are the trabeculae carneae?
irregular muscular elevations on internal surface of ventricles
What are the two parts of the interventricular septum?
muscular part (toward apex (bottom)), membranous part (superior and posterior)
What is the conus arteriosus?
cone shaped pouch leads into pulmonary trunk
What is the pulmonary valve?
semilunar v guarding p trunk
Where is the pulmonary valve located?
right ventricle
What are the cusps of the right atrioventricular valve?
ant, pos, septal
What is the function of the atrioventricular valves?
prevent backflow into atria during ventricular contraction by papillary muscules and chordae tendineae
Where does the left atrium get its blood?
from the lungs via the four pulmonary veins
Where are the pectinate muscles in the left atria?
in the auricle
Where does blood flow into the left ventricle?
from the left atrium through the left atrioventricular orifice
What guards the left atrioventricular orifice?
the mitral/bicuspid valve
Where are the trabeculae carneae more numerous and finer?
l ventricle
Which wall thickest? Why?
the left ventricle (2x as right)
blood pumps to entire body
What shape is the left ventricle?
What shape is the right ventricle?
crescent shaped
What part of the left ventricle is smooth?
the part that leads to the aorta
What guards the ascending aorta?
the semilunar aortic valve
How many cusps in mitral valve?
2: anterior and posterior
What is the most commonly diseased valve of the heart?
the mitral
nodules can form, turbulent flow
Which valves are tricuspid?
the pulmonary and aortic
Which valves are not associated with papillary muscles?
the pulmonary and aortic valves
What does each cusp of the semilunar valve have?
fibrous nodule (hard midpoint)
lunule (thin CT on either side of nodule)
What happends when the semilunar valves close?
the nodules and lunules meet in the center
What do the coronary arteries arise from?
the aortic sinuses
When do the coronary sinuses and aortic sinuses fill?
following ventricular contraction
What are the 3 vessels in the umbilical cord?
2 arteries become medial ligaments of anterior abdominal wall