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122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define the qualities of an atom
-mass and positive charge
-in the nucleus
has a mass, but no charge
-give different isoptopes "heavy atoms"
-in the nucleus
no mass, but a negative charge
-in the surrounding space
Covalent bond
share electrons
-fill their energy levels to increase stability
-strong-best for storing energy
ionic bonds
positively charged ION/PARTICLE being attracted to a negative charge
-about the particle not the electron and the proton
-wearker than covalent
Water has a ____ structure
What are hydrogen bonds? What are the good for?
slightly positivie REGIONS attracted to negative regions
-useless in Energy, good for changing shape (ie helix of DNA)
how many molecules of water will have an H break of and leave its electrons behind?
1/10 biliion (1x10^-7)
more acidic = __ PH
What do buffers do? Example?
maintain a particular pH by grabing/releasing hydrogens
-proteins in the blood stream (albumins)
When CO2 disolves in water it makes ___? How does this effect your body?
carbonic acid
-when you work out, you break down glucose and get a biproduct of CO2. The sensory in the medula detects this low pH, so you breathe faster to ger rid of all CO2.
Structure of carbs
-5 0r 6 membered rights
example of simple sugars?
-glucose, fructose, ribose
structure/role of glucose
6 carbond right
gets Oxygen from 1 part of the body to another via the blood stream
this oxygen is stored in the muscle
structure/role of starch
long chain of sugars
broken down into single sugars and absorbed right from stomach lining
-sugar storage in plants
Liver and carbs?
liver stores glucose in long chains of glycogen. it can break of single molecules of glucose
made of sugars that are linked together in away that we can't break it down-we don't absorb it-no net carbs
Jobs of Carbs
-Getting energy via bloodstream
-Storing Energy
What are lipids?
-made up of C,H,O and sometimes proteins
-carbons are in a long chain (aka a fatty acid)
lipids and energy?
great for storing energy-to get energy out you break the C-C bonds making CO2 and extra energy
Lipids are hydro___? how do they move around in the body?
move around w/ bile, which make ampiphilic lecitihin
what is a phospholipids? role?
has 2 carbon strings attached to a glycerol.
the other position is taken up by a photphate groupe
B/c the photphate is hydrophilic, the molecule becomes ampiphilic
Used to build cell membranes (form micelles and bilayers in water)
Jobs of lipids
energy storage
structural integrety
saturated fat
as many h's as possible, no dbl bounds
-line up tightly, stiffen arteries
unsaturated fats
-less h's than possible, have dbl bonds
-bent, so they can't pack as tightly so membranes must be more flexible
trans fats
line up along the dbl bond differently, so they loose a lot of their bend
-can pack tightly like saturated fats
structure of proteins?
made of CHON
linked togehter amino acids
primary structure
amino acid order
secondary structure
shape/spiral from h bonds when put in water
tertiary structure
globular helix w/ pocekts
have regions of hydrophobicity/phillicity
have cores/channels, ionic/covalent bonds
quatenary strucutre
tertaiaryh structure coming togeher
what are nucleic acids? role?
nucleodtides linked togther
-code for all genetic info
-3 different nucleotides code for a specific amino acid
what is a nucleotide? how many different ones are there?
-a sugar, phosphate, and a base
nucleotides in the chromosome of cells
carries info from nucleus to sytoplasm
single nucleotide that shifts energy around inside a cell
jobs of nucleic acids
genetic info and cellular internal energy
3 major divisions of the cell?
cell membrane
do all cells have a nucleus?
yes, at some point
RBC have none, muscle cells have lots
what is the membrane made of?
a phospholipid bi layer
Describe the permeability of the membrane
Name and describe the 3 types of channels
leak channels-a molecule that fits can go in either direction at anytime
gated chanel-open only sometimes
pump-open to one side to let something in, then closes by changing shape, requires energy
Roles of surface proteins?
identify cells as your cell-antigens
-cell to cel communication-develop boundaries/determine shape
-textured surface of the membrane
-add surface area so that things can cross the membrane faster
Where would mircovilli be prominent?
digestive tract
-absorb/reabsorb nutrients
on surface
have microfibers inside them so they move in synctum
sweep mucus out of respiratory tract to pharyny to esophogus to stomach
-in fallopian tube to sweep eg
propeller to move sperm
Define the cytoplasm?
all stuff inside the cell except the nucleus
define the cytosol
water and disolved particles in the cytoplasm
lysosomes? roles?
-bags of digestive enzymes
-help cells that eat each other cells by destroying the eaten stuff
-help w/ devellopment-destroys tissues so that new tissues can form-ie adult bone formation
Edoplasmic reticulum? 2 types?
-system of interlocking channels and tubes w/ a wall made of a phospholipid membrane
-rough-has ribosome
-smooth-no ribosomes(sends a signal to release calcium for muscle contraction)
-where proteins are made
-LINK together amino acids
-can delve further and further in the ER so they are processed
Role of Golgi
package prtoeins for export so that, wraps digestive enzymes in a bag
Mitochondria-role and how they work
Absorb Energy and transfer it from glucose
-glucose is broken apart by enzymes in the cytosol into pyruvate.
This is absorbed into the mitochondria and further broken down into CO2, releasing E from bonds
-uses Energy to make ATP
Unique features of mitochondria
-separate living organism-own DNA that is circular like bacteria
-can only be inherited from mother
-endosymmbiants-we depend on each other
Why do we get a fever when we are sick?
-our lymphocytes can divide quicker
-bateria have trouble absorbing iron and zinc (which help them build cell wals)
Structure of the nucleus?
Dbl membrane structure (2 bilayers)
-has pores, big holes, so that anything that fits (not DNA) dissolved in the cytoplasm can float right in/out like RNA
What is true about every cell in the body and DNA
every cell has a complete full set info
-DNA is used w/ out leaving the nucleus
3 steps to making proteins?
Replication, transcription, translation
what holds the DNA backbone together?
covalent bonds
what holds the alpha helix together?
hydrogen bonds
basic steps of replication
-DNA is copied
-DNA condenses around histones to be less fragile
-DNA divides to the daughter cells, so each daughter cell gets a set of 46 chromosomes
difference from RNA and DNA
-uracil not thyamine
-ribonucleas not deoxyribonucleuas
-different sequence and molecule/same information
where does transcription occur?
in the nucleus
basic steps of transcription
-alpha helix unzips and part of DNA becomes exposed
-an RNA is made from the exposed part
-alpha helix zips back up
where does translation take place?
in the cytoplasm, at the ribosomes
basic steps of translation
-mRNA are at the ribosome
tRNA (w/ methionine) match up so that the correct amino acid are linked-have the reverse triplet of mRNA
-ribosomes catalyze the rxn
what is histology?
the study of tissue
a group of similar cells (usually linked) working toether to acomplism some purpose
group of specific tissues that work together to acomplish some more complex purpose
protiens that hold cells together
and proteins that cells secrete that surround the cell and form a certain function
epithelial tissue-basic
matrix does the job
muscle tissue
move things by changing shape
nervous tissues
intergration/coordination of things (get info from 1 place to another)
apiscal side of epithelial tissue
side that faces away from the organ
side of epithelial tissue stuck to the organ?
basment side
what glues that basalar side of epithelia tissue to the organ
-proteins (basement membrane)
simple epithelium
1 cell layer thing
-absoprtion/transport across it
stratified epithelium
=multiple cell layers
-lot of friction, more protection
squemous cells
squashed/flat/ thin cells
cuobodial cells
as tall as wide
-in tubes/ducts
columnar cells
-long and tall, packed very tight
What kind of cells make up the kidney
simple cubodial
What kind of cells make up the aveoli
simple squaemous
What kind of cells make up the stomach
simple columnar
What kind of cells make up the salivary ducts
stratified cubodial
What kind of cells make up the epidermus
stratified squaemous
What kind of cells make up the trachea
pseudostratified ciliated cells
look stratified b/c nuclei aren't all lined up in a row
-actually only 1 layer
transitional cells
looks simple when stretched, looks stratified when relaxed (ie in the bladder)
grandular epithelium
exocrine grands
secrete stuff that leave the body
2 types of grandular epitheium cell shapes?
tubular-pit lined cells that make a product
alveolar-hllow pockets/grape shapes w/ cells
merocrine glands
release product thru exocitosis
holocrine glands
whole cell in gland burts, all conents in cell are released and spreds
apocrine glands
a small piece of the cell pinches off then burts
-mammary glands and milk
what are the abundant proteins in connective tissues?
elastin and colagen
dense colagen?
lined up and not very stretch
-good for connecting muscle to bone
reticular colagen?
layered against each other in different directions
tissue is a tough sheet
reticular connective tissue
what types of connective tissue are there?
areoral, regular,
adipose (lipids inside are most important)
bone(calcium phosphate salt)
blood (plasma that carries nutrients)
skeletal muscle tissue
-striated-proteins are lined up very organized
cardiac muscle
-branched cells-wrap around chambers
smooth muscle
-no striation
sends signals
glue neurons together
insulate neurons
blood brain barrier
phagocytic (clean up)
stages of developmental tissue?
single cell
1st ste pf dvelopment
cluster of cells w/ no specialization (divided zygote)
hollow mass of cells all migrated to the periphery
cells on 1 side of the bastular move to the midel to create at tube that wil become the digestive tract
-first tissues-differentiated
-cells inside tube
-lining of the gut
cells outside tube
cells outside body-nervous tissues and subaceous
break of ectoderm and start developing the space between tube and inside-become muscle tissue ect.
skin is an ___?
outer layer-kulled my keratin to make it waterproof
inner layer- still undergoing mitosis
collagen fibers, ect..
whyn are skin cells stratified squemous?
they are waterproff (avoid dehydration)
sabaceous glands?
make oils, on the surface they trap germs
sweat glands?
-salt and wated excreted by active transport, creating an osmotic gradient for water that takes away heat via evaportion
hairs in skin
slight insulation
goosebups increase this b/c hair stands up
neurons in cells
send signals about temp, pressure
-fee nerve endings stimulated by histamine mast cells(allergic/immune rxn, pain signals)