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70 Cards in this Set

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Frontal Bone forms what?
the forehead and the superior portion of the orbital fossa
The frontal sinus is what?
A midline cavity within the frontal bone between the supraorbital regions
The frontal bone articulate with what bones?
The ethmoid bone and the sphenoid bone, as well as the zygomatic bone, nasal, and parietal bones. (5 articulations)
The occipital bone forms what?
the posterior and inferior portion of the skull
what is the foramen magnum?
the large opening in the inferior portion (base) of the occipital bone through which the brainstem passes. The brainstem passes through the foramen magnum at the level of its junction with the spinal cord.
what are the occipital condyles?
the smooth bumps located laterally of the foramen magnum.
what articulates with the occipital condyles?
the concave facets of the atlas.
what is the jugular foramina?
small, oval openings formed along the suture between the occipital bone and temporal bone. they are the openings for the passage of the internal jugular veins as well as cranial nerves IX, X, XI
what are the zygomatic bones?
they form the lateral wall and part of the floor of the orbit of the eye.
what is the temporal process of the zygomatic bone?
the process that points posteriorly and articulates with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.
what is the zygomatic arch?
the arch that is formed by union of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone and the temporal process of the zygomatic bone. this arch forms the cheek bone
what is the frontal process of the zygomatic bone?
process that forms the lateral wall of the orbit and it articulates with the frontal bone
what are the palentine bones?
they form the posterior portion of the hard palate and a portion of the orbit. home of the horizontal plate (posteriorly boundary of the palantine process of the maxilla)
what are the nasal bones?
they form the bridge of the nose. they articulate with both the frontal and maxilla
what are the lacrimal bones?
they form a portion of the orbit and contain the opening for the nasolacrimal duct. (conducts tears)
What is the sphenoid bone?
forms part of the floor and lateral walls of the cranium. it looks like a pterodactyl.
what are the greater wings of the sphenoid bone?
help give the sphenoid bone its characteristic 'bat' shape. they extend laterally and can be seen in the lateral view of an articulate skull.
what do the greater winds of the sphenoid bone articulate with?
the frontal bone and the parietal bone on each side of the skull. a portion also forms the posterior portion of the eye orbits.
what are the lesser wings of the sphenoid bone?
small, wing-shaped structures located medial to the greater windgs. the optic canals pass through them. the wings also form the superior portion of the superior orbital fissures.
what are the optic canals?
pass through the lesser wings of the sphenoid bone. where the optic nerves pass.
what are the superior orbital fissures?
diagonal slits located lateral to the optic canals. the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone form the borders of the superior orbital fissures. they are passageways for nerves and blood vessels.
what is the body of the sphenoid bone?
the central portion of the sphenoid located medial and inferior to the greater wings. it contains the sphenoid sinuses.
what is the sella turcica?
a deep impression in the superior portion of the body of the sphenoid. the pituitary gland is housed here.
what are the pterygoid plates?
project from the inferior surface of the sphenoid bone. they are located behind the upper 3rd molar in an articulated skull
what is the ethmoid bone?
located midline and forms a portion of the anterior floor of the cranium and the roof of the nasal cavity.
what is the crista galli?
the pointed structure on the superior surface of the ethmoid bone. a portion of the dura mater attached to the crista galli.
what is the cribriform plate?
a region of porous bone to either side of the crista galli. Olfactory nerves pass through this plate.
what is the perpendicular plate?
the vertical portion of the ethmoid located at the midline of the bone. it forms the superior part of the bony nasal septum.
what are the superior and middle nasal conchae?
bony scroll-shaped structure extending into the nasal cavity.
what are the ethmoid sinuses?
small cavities within the ethmoid bone.
what are the lateral masses?
located lateral to the nasal conchae. they form the medial portion of the orbit. found in the ethmoid bone.
What is the temporal bone?
forms part of th e lateral walls and part of the floor of the cranium.
what is the mastoid process?
found on the temporal bone. is a large, blunt process located posterior and inferior to the external ear. the mastoid process is an attachment site for the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
what is the styloid process?
found on the temporal bone. the pointed structure located anterior to the mastoid process. tendons and ligaments connect this structure with the hyoid bone.
what is the petrous portion?
found on the temporal bone. a bony ridge that forms part of the floor of the cranium. it contains the auditory ossicles as well as stuctures of the inner ear.
what is the external auditory meatus?
the opening for the ear canal. anterior and superior to the mastoid process.
what is the carotid canal(carotid foramen)?
the passageway for the internal carotid artery. within the cranial cavity, the carotid canal opens near the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. it opens just anterior to the jugular foramen.
what is the zygomatic process of the temporal bone?
meets the temporal process of the zygomatic bone and it is anterior to the xternal auditory meatus.
what is the mandibular fossa?
a depression on the proximal, inferior surface of the zygomatic process of the temporal bone. the mandibular fossa is the articular site for the condylar process of the mandible.
what articulates with the mandibular fossa?
the condylar process of the mandible.
what is the mandible?
the lower jaw and is the only movable bone in the skull.
what is the condylar process?
a round knob that articulate with the madibular fossa of the temporal bone. forms the temporomandibular joint.
what is the coronoid process?
anterior to the condylar process. the site of attachment for the temporalis muscle. found on the mandible.
what is the alveolar region?
the area of the mandible that houses the tooth sockets for the lower dentition
what is the angle of the madible?
the curbed part of the lower jaw, just below the ear.
what is the mental foramina?
small openings on the anterior surface of the mandible for the passage of blood vessels and nerves.
what is the hyoid bone?
a sesmoid bone (does not articulate with any bone directly). it is attached to the styloid process of the temporal bone, the inferior border of the mandible and the manubrium of the sternum by tendons and ligaments. protects the vocal cords.
what is the maxilla?
together the two maxillae form the upper jaw. they articulate with each other along the midline between the two front incisors. each also forms parts of the orbit of the eye and hard palate.
what is the frontal process of the maxilla?
a pointed structure that articulates with the frontal bone. it also forms part of the bridge of the nose.
what does the frontal process articulate with?
the frontal bone.
what is the alveolar regions of the maxilla?
houses tooth sockets for the upper dentition
what is the palatine process of the maxilla?
the anterior portion of the hard palate, which articulates with the horizontal plate of the palatine bone.
what does the palatine process articulate with?
the horizontal plate of the palatine bone.
what are the maxillary sinuses?
cavities within the maxilla.
what are the inferior nasal conchae?
connected to the walls of the maxilla and are visible through the nasal cavity. NOT part of the ethmoid bone.
what are the characteristics of the vertebral column?
transverse processes, superior articular facets, inferior articular facets, spinous process, body, vertical arch, lamina, pedicles, vertebral foramen, and vertebral canal.
what do superior articular facets articulate with?
the adjacent vertebra above.
what do inferior articular facets articulate with??
the adjacent vertebra below.
how many vertebrae are in the human body?
26
what are the cervical vertebrae and how many are there?
7, form the neck region. first two are known as the atlas and the axis.
what are the thoracic vertebrae and how many are there?
12, located beginnine just inferior to the 7th cervical vertebrae. most have articular surfaces for the ribs. resemble a giraffe's head.
what are the lumbar vertebrae and how many are there?
5, do not have articular sites for ribs. resemble a moose's head.
what are the sacral vertebrae?
fuse to form the sacrum, in the adult. articulates with the ilium of each coxal bone.
what are the coccygeal vertebrae and how many are there?
3-5, form the tail bone.
what is the intervertebral foramen?
the opening formed between the pedicles of adjacent vertebrae through which the spinal nerves exit.
what are the intervertebral discs?
cartilaginous cushions between each vertebra.
what are the curvatures of the vertebral column?
there are 4 --- the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral. the thoracic and sacral are primary curvatures, while the cervical and lumbar are secondary curvatures. the secondary form several months after birth and help distribute body weight over the feet.
what is the atlas?
the 1st cervical vertebra. does not have a body or a spinous process. has superior articular facets. articulates with the occipital condyles allowing nodding of the head. has inferior articulating facets.
what is the axis?
2nd cervical vertebra. dens, body (fusion of the body of the atlas and the body of the axis).
what is cervical vertebra c7?
the vertebra prominens.