Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

173 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What 2 things does the CNS (Central Nervous System) contain?
Brian, Spinal Cord
What 2 types of neurons are located in the PNS (Peripheral Nervous System)?
Sensory, Motor
________ & ________ make up an action potential.
Depolarization, Repolarization
What are the two divisions of Motor Neurons?
Somatic, Autonomic
What does the somatic division of motor neurons regulate?
the contraction of skeletal muscle.
What does the Autonomic division of motor neurons regulate?
Contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle.
What are 2 divisions of the autonomic division?
Sympathetic, parasympathetic
What does the sympathetic division do?
Prepares body for action
What does the parasympathetic division do?
The opposite of sympathetic, helps return body to resting levels.
What are nerve impulses also known as?
action potentials
What is the cellbody of neurons?
The nucleus
What does the axon of a neuron do?
Carries info away from neuron.
What is a synapse?
A space between two neighboring neurons.
What are dendrites?
Branches of cell body that pick up and recieve info.
What does the ending -ASE mean on a word?
That is is an enzyme
What is the goal of synaptic transmission?
To get a message accross the space (Synapse) between two cells.
what are the 4 steps of synaptic transmission?
1. Presynaptic membrane
2. diffusion of neurotransmitter
3. post synaptic membrane
4. re-absorbtion/destruction of neurotransmitter.
What is the Presynaptic membrane?
It is located before the synapse, the sender that sends the neurotransmitter.
What is the Post synaptic membrane
Receiver cell of the neurotransmitter. Recieves from the post synaptic membrane.
What do adrenergic fibers contain?
What do cholinergic fibers contain?
What does Acetylcholine tell muscle cells to do?
Contract, it works as a chemical messenger
what is epinepherine commonly referred to as?
What is the anatomic name of the Sympathetic Division of the Autonomic Nervous system?
thorocolumbar division
What are the bounardies of the thorocolumbar division?
Norepinepherine is released by what fibers?
Post ganglionic
what is the axon hillock?
on/off switch
what is gray matter involved in?
decision making
what is white matter involved in?
conducting these decisions
anatomic structure which contains a synapse within. Always located outside of the CNS.
Preganglionic neuron
neuron before the ganglia
postganglionic neuron
neuron after the ganglia
All fibers in the post ganglionic are what?
adrenergic fibers
where are receptors located?
on muscle cells
_ _ _ determines what receptors go on what muscle cells
What is the length of preganglionic fibers?
length of postganglionic fibers?
What are two types of receptors in the sympathetic divsion?
Alpha, beta
What is the term divergence refering to?
the communication between preganglionic fibers and post ganglionic fibers... To spread out info to multiple destinations
What three things are sympathetic reponses involved with?
expenditure of energy, physical exertion, and is a part of the alarm system.
what are two characteristics of the sympathetic chain ganglia?
1. paravertebral or lateral ganglia
2. control effectors in body wall and thoracic cavity
what are characteristics of the collateral ganglia?
1.prevertebral ganglia
2. regulation of organs of abdominopelvic cavity
what are 3 prevertebral ganglia?
1. ciliac
2. superior mesenteric
3. inferior mesenteric
what are characteristics of the adrenal medulla?
1. modified sympathetic ganglia
2. norepinepherine/epinepherine into blood stream released
what is the anatomic name of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system?
craniosacral division
Whatever sympathetic does, parasympathetic will do the ______.
__________ is released in the parasympathetic division in the post ganglionic level by _____ ____.
acetylcholine, cholinergic fibers.
what are the 2 types of receptors in the parasympathetic division?
Nicotinic and muscurinic.
Ganglia is near or within the wall of the ______ ______.
target organ
eqach preganglionic fiber synapses withonly a ___ postganglionic fibers.
____ % of delivery of info done in the parasympathetic division is done through the vagus nerve.
Where is the hypothalamus located?
Within the diencephalon
what is the diencephalon comprised of?
epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus
hypothalamus makes changes to cardiovascular functions by way of ______ ______.
medulla oblangata
Hypothalamus makes decisions regarding:
1. heart rate/ blood pressure
2. body temperature/ thermoregulation
3. hunger/thirst
4. emotions via limbic system
5. releasing of hormones in the pituitary.
What is the difference between endocrine and exocrine?
Endo - within, ductless
exo - outside of , duct
What do target cells respond to?
What are characteristics of hormones?
1.) chemical regulators of biological functions
2.) regulate rates of cellular chemical reactions
3.) secretes in response to stimuli
4.) exert different actions within target cell
5.) exibit a high degree of specificity
6.) effects dependent on blood level of hormone.
7.) effects result from intracellular secondary messengers.
what is upregulation?
incfrease # of receptors
what is downregulation?
decrease # of receptors
what is a cylic amp?
an example of an intracellular secondary messenger
what are steroid hormones?
work in nucleus of cell effecting dna
what is hormonal stimuli?
release of anterior pituitary hormones
what does humoral mean?
blood chemisty
what is negative feedback?
means by which the body regulates release of chemicals, or inhibits the source.
what does insulin and calcitonin react to?
blood levels
what does aldosterone react to?
sodium level
the hypothalamus exhibits _________ _______.
neuroendocrine function
what does neuroendocrine function mean?
that is part of CNS, uses neurotransmitters, and secretes hormones.
how does the hypothalamus gain pituitary control
via capillaries and axons
what part is the anterior pituitary?
front part
what is larger portion of the two divisions anterior/posterior pituitary?
what is another name from anterior pituitary?
anterior/posterior which is the glandular part?
what is the hypophyseal portal system?
communication by way of blood vessels b/w hypothalamus and pituitary
name 6 hormones of the anterior pituitary
1. growth hormone
2. thyroid-stimulating hormone
3. adrenocorticotropic hormone
4. follicle-stimulating hormone
5. lutenizing hormone
6. prolactin
what is another name for growth hormone?
somatotropin or somatotrophic hormone
Name what dictates the release or growth hormone, its target, and what it stimulates.
hypothalamus dictates its release, its target it the liver, and it stimulates protein synthesis.
what process is the growth hormone important to?
healing process
what do tropic hormones do?
stimulate targets to release something else.
what is another name for thyroid stimulating hormone?
thyrotropin, thyrotrophic hormone
what does the thyroid stimulating hormone stimulate and tell it to do?
stimulates the thyroid and tells it to speed up.
Characteristics of the Posterior Pituitary
NEURONS extend down further from the hypothalamus to connect to the posterior pituitary (neurons/posterior pituitary)
Action potentials released from hypothalamus to posterior pituitary from axons
How does the hypothalamus send information to the posterior pituitary?
Through action potentials (nerve impulses)released from axons
Hormone that stimulates smooth msucles in the uterous to bring about birth. ALSO stimulates mammary gland smooth muscle to release milk. Works by positve feedback from stretch receptors.
What are the hormones of the posterior pituitary?
-Oxytocin (OT)-uterine smooth muscle/mammary gland smooth muslce

-Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
What are stretch receptors
sensory neurons that sense the defree of stretch in an organ. Tells the CNS how badly it needs to get rid of whatever is in the certain organ.
what is another name for adrenocorticotropic hormone?
corticotropin or corticotrophic hormone
what does adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulate and what tells it to do so?
stimulates cortex of adrenal gland when told to do so by the hypothalamus
what is another name for follicle-stimulating hormone?
gonadotropin, or gonadotrophic hormone
what does FSH do?
gets word to gonads to generate reproductive cells
what is gametogenesis?
the making of sex cells
Where is oxytocin made and where is it stored?
Made by the hypothalamus, but stored in the posterior pituitary
Where is ADH made and where is it stored?
Made by the hypothalamus, but stored in the posterior pituitary
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) literal meaning?
Literal meaning=
diuretic-water loss
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)
Helps with water re-absorption in the kidneys instead of releasing water through the urine. Helps maintain blood pressure
Literal meaning?
helps maintain blood pressure
lutenizing hormone is a what?
the female lutenizing hormones produces and supports what?
produces ovarian estrogen, and supports ovulation
the male lutenizing hormone (ICSH) is found where and produces what?
found in testes, profuces testosterone
what does ICSH stand for?
intersitital cell-stimulating hormone
what is the hormone prolactin main function?
milk production
what two hormones does prolactin work along with?
estrogen, and progesterone
what are the three hormones located in the thyroid gland?
1. thyroxine
2. triiodothyronin
3. thyrocalcitonin
what is another name for thyroxine?
what is another name for triiodothyronine?
what is another name for thyrocalcitonin?
what do thyroxin and triiodythronine regulate?
what are thyroxin and triiodothyrine produced by and what do they produce themselves?
produced by follicular cells, it produces heat
what tells the anterior pituitary to relese t4 or t3?
what allows for thyroid to communicate with hypothalamus?
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
what does thyrocalcitonin maintain?
levels of blood calcium
what is thyrocalcitonin produced by and what is its target?
produced by parafollicular cells, targets osteoblasts.
what gland is responsible for the production/secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
parathyroid gland
what is another name for parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
like thyrocalcitonin, PTH also helps to maintain what?
proper levels of calcium in the blood
what is parathyroid hormones target?
what is another name for adrenal glands
suprarenal glands
where is the adrenal gland located?
attatched to the top of the kidney
what two things is the adrenal gland comprised of?
adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex
what is the adrenal cortex?
outer edge of adrenal gland. responsible for production of more than 2 dozen esteroid hormones, which are made form cholesterol
what is a corticosteroid?
steroid hormone produced by cells int he adrenal cortex. important to healing and physical stress
what are the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex?
1. zona glomerulosa
2. zona fasciculata
3. zona reticularis
what are the collection of steroid hormones which are produced in the zona glomerulosa?
what do mineralocorticoids do?
regulate minerals, or electrolytes, within the body
which is the thinnest of the three layers of the adrenal cortex
zona glomerulosa
what is aldosterone?
a steroid hormone that regulates sodium + potassium levels, and is also the leading member of the mineralocorticoids.
what is the collection of steroids produced in the zona fasciculata?
what do glucocorticoids do?
help the body to prepare for emergency or physically stressful situations
what is cortisol?
the leading member of the glucocorticoid family, important to the bodys ability to deal with physical stress.
what is glucogenesis?
the production of new glucose from non- carbohydrate sources. Non carbohydrate sources include: amino and fatty acids
what is lipolysis?
breaking down of lipids to be able to release fatty acids
What is the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex?
zona reticularis
what is the collection of steroids that the adrenal reticularis produces?
what are gonadocorticoids?
steroid hormones that mimic effects of gonads
what are chromaffrin cells?
highly specialized nuerons w/o dendrites or axons
what type of cells are the chromaffrin cells in the adrenal medulla?
post ganglionic cells
what is the adrenal medulla comprised of?
nerve tissue
what is another name for norepinepherine
what two hormones are produced and released int he blood by the way of the adrenal medulla?
epinepherine, norepinepherine
what family does norepinephere, epinepherine, and dopamine belong to?
95% of the pancreas involvement is what?
does the pancreas have exocrine, endocrine or both functions
what are islets of langerhans?
clusters of cells scattered throughout the pancreas.
islets of langerhans are involved with endocrine or exocrine functions?
What do beta cells respond to?
Humoral levels
What are humoral levels?
measure of blood glucose levels-blood glucose levels are usually higher after a meal has been consumed
What do beta cells do?
The rise of blood glucose causes beta cells to release insulin from the islets of langerhans. Release is triggered by humeral (primary) and neural response.
What two hormones are released by the pancreas?
insulin and glucagon
When is insulin usually released?
During a parasympathetic response (returning to normal levels to digest food)
What are the effects of insulin?
1)Membrane transport
5)Protein Synthesis
membrane transport
Creates a hypoglycemic effect which is the removal of gluecose from the blood and putting it into cells. To do this, it increases premiability of cells to allow for glucose to enter. Decreases blood glucose levels
The splitting of sugar/glucose in attempt to get energy out of the cells for the body to use. Take gluecose and put it in the firepit to get energy from sugar. Insulin is involved to do this
the formation of glycogen In the presence of insulin. Primarily happens in liver and muscle tissue.
Formation and storage of lipids
Protein Synthesis
In the presence of glucose and insulin protein will be used in restoration and healing in the body.
what are the effects of Glucagon?
What two hormones produced by the pancreas oppose each other?
Insulin and Glucagon
What does glucagon do?
Produced by the alpha cells of the islets of langerhans. Said to have a hyperglycemic effect. When theres a decrease in blood sugar/gluecose levels, glucagons are released to increase the blood glucose levels.
The lysis of glycogen. Taking the end of the glycogen off and increasing the blood glucose levels.
carbohydrate/polysaccharide which is stored in the liver
the creation of new glucose
Produce and secrete estrogens and progesterone. Critically important to the cycling of females reproductive cycles and of pregnancy. STEROIDS
Important to the production of testosterone
Pineal Gland
The epithalamus contains the pineal gland. Exposure to light causes the pineal gland to produce hormones.
n humans the role of melatonin contributes towards our sleep patterns. Onset of sleep, emergence of sleep, and the maintenance of sleep. Neurotransmitter AND Hormone
Related to melatonin, but serotonin is another important neurotransmitter (primarily). Has a lot to do with your mood: Depression, happiness, etc.
Important to maintain alertness
Important to maintain alertness
Thymus Gland
Associated with the heart and located between the chest and the sternum.
What does the thymus gland produce?
Thymosin - creates white blood cells, but only the T-cells of white blood cells.
What is Thymosin?
creates white blood cells, but only the T-cells of white blood cells.