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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is choledoclithiasis?
stone in the common bile duct
What is Cholangitis?
inflammation in common bile duct
What is Charcot's Triad?
- three symptoms attributed to cholingitis 1. jaundice 2. right upper quadrant pain 3. fever
What is the function of the ampulla of vater?
- empties through the sphincter of oddi into the duodenum
What is the portal triad?
bile duct, hepatic artery, portal vein
What is the sequence of evaluation when examining the abdomen?
IAPP (inspection, ausculation, percussion, palpation)
What is the most common etiology of gastric ulcer?
H. Pylori
What typically causes pain in the bowel?
stretch fibers (as in gas) typically cause pain in the bowel
Right Upper quadrant pain in a fat, fertile, 40 y/o female is most likely due to what condition?
What is the name of the suspensory ligament that separtes the duodenum from the jejunum?
Ligament of Treitz
Why is cryptorchidism?
failure of the testis to desend into the scrotum within 3 months after birth
What is pyrosis?
substernal pain or buring sensation usually associated with regurgitation of gastric acid into the esophagus
What is the most common origin of pain in the left upper quadrant?
What muscles squeeze urine from the male urethra at the end of micturation?
bulbospongiosus muscle
Which organ passes between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery?
What percentage of gallstones are visible on an abdominal Xray?
What percentage of kidney stones are visible of an abdominal Xray?
What is the most common location of pain from diverticulitis?
Left lower quadrant
What is guarding?
- involuntary spasms of the abdominal muscles - the body's attempt to protect the viscera from pressure
What is the most common cause of appendicitis?
People who get appendicitis are usually within what age range?
15-30 years old
A pregnant patient with appendicitis can have pain in which area?
Right upper quadrant
What are the three major branches of the aorta that supply the gut?
celiac trunk, superior & inferior mesenteric arteries
What is the most common cause of small bowel obstruction?
What is an important presentation of ischemic bowel (or mesenteric ischemia)?
- Pain out of proportion to the exam - patient will have present with pain, but no pain on palpation
What are the 2 types of perotinitis?
primary and secondary perotinitus
What is McBurnie's point?
- the most common area of pain and tenderness for appendicitis - located 2/3 between the umbilical and ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine)
What is Murphy's sign?
- pain from cholecystitis after deep inspiration - the clinician has their hand under the inferior portion of the costal margin. When the patient takes a deep breath, the diaphragm moves down, pushing the liver, which pushes the gallbladder into the clinician's finger
What is the iliosoas sign?
- the patient is supine and they raise their right leg against pressure - if the patient has pain in the RLQ, the iliacus and psoas muscle put pressure on the appendix causing pain
What is the obturator sign?
- the patient is supine and bend the patient knee at 90° - knee is rotated inward - obturator muscle puts pressure on the appendix, causing pain
What is one method of differentiating the small intestine from the large intestine on xray?
- the large intestine will have the free taenia (taenia libera), which is the line that runs down the middle of the large intestine
What two branches flow into the common bile duct?
the cystic duct (from the gallbladder) and the hepatic duct (from the liver)
What is a common cause of pneumoperitoneum?
perforated bowel
What is the cremaster reflex?
tickle the thigh and the testicles rise
What is the difference between a direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
- Direct hernia go directly through the abdominal wall - Indirect hernia go through the inguinal canal
What 3 landmarks form Hesselback's Triangle?
Rectus abdominus muscle, inferior epigastric vessels, inguinal ligament
What tissue does the ureter go through in the penis?
corpus spongiosum
What is hypospadias?
a congenital anomaly where the external opening of the urethra is on the ventral part of the glans
What are the different parts of the fallopian tube from ovary to uterus?
fimbriae » infundibulum » ampulla » isthmus » uterine part
Why does appendicitis sometimes present as periumbilical pain?
the afferent fibers from the appendix enter the spinal cord at the T10 level, which is the area of skin supplied by cutaneous nerves around the umbilicus
What is rebound tenderness?
when the patient has pain after the physician releases pressure on the abdomen
What is the most common hiatal hernia?
a sliding hiatal hernia, where the esophagus moves freely through the hiatus
What is spermatocele?
a retention cyst, or collection of fluid, in the epididymis