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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Bones of the shoulder
lateral clavicle
prox. humerus
acts as a strut holding the upper limb from the trunk to allow for max freedom of motion
acticuluates with the lateral clavicle
Characterized by a lateral spine and a promiment projection (point of the shoulder) called the acromion
medial to the acromion, inferior and between the two processes is the shallow glenoid fossa for articulation with the are
coracoid process
defined as the part of the upper limb between the shoulder and elbow
is the only bone of the arm and is characterized proximally by a rounded head
close to the head of the humerus are two prominences
greater & lesser tubercles
Greater & lesser tubercles are separated by the
intertubercular groove (sulcus)
Distal end of the humerus has two adjoining prominences the
capitulum laterally
trochlea medially
attached to the humerus are two ___________which extend from the brachial fascia, divide the arm into ant/post
intermuscular septa
connection of the humerus to the scapula is a ball and socket type of synovial joint
shoulder (glenohumeral jt.)
head of the humerus articulates with the shallow gleniod fossa of the scapula, slightly deepened by fibrocartilaginous rim ___.
glenoid labrum
Name the rotator cuff muscles
supraspinatus, infraspinatus, tres minor, subscapularis
The rotator cuff muscles work to hold the _____ in the glenoid fossa
humeral head
Name the ligaments that prodive stability to the shoulder joint
acromioclavicular, coracoacromial, coracoclavicular (two parts: conoid & trapezoid) ligaments
resists separation of the scapula from the clavicle
prevents upward displacement of the humeral head
coracromial ligament
resists the upward movement of the clavicle from the coracoid process
coracoclavicular (two parts: conoid & trapezoid)
muscles of the shoulder jt. are classified as the shoulder
connectors of the upper limb to the vertebral column, throacic wall or intrinsic muscles of
Muscles of the shoulder jt that connect upper limb to the vertebral column
Trapezius, latissimus dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomoboid major/minor
origin from the superior nuchal line, inion ligamentum nuchae (unites spinous process) spinous process of thoracic
Insertion of the trapezius
lateral third of the clavicle acromion, scapular spine
Action of the trapezius
elevates, retracts, rotates scapula
Trapezius nerve innervation
accessory nerver (cranial nerve XI)
originates from the throacodorsal fascia and iliac crests
latissimus dorsi
Insertion of the latissimus dorsi
floor of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerus
action of the latissimus dorsi
extends, adducts, medial rotation of the arm
Latissimus dorsi and teres major form
the posterior axillary fold
Nerve innervation of the latisimuss dorsi
thoracodorsal nerve (C6-8)
Originating from cervical transverse process
Levator scapulae
Insertion of levator scapulae
superior medial border of the scapula
Action of levator scapulae
elevates scapula
Nerve innervation of levator scapulae
C3 & C4 and dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
orgin, primarily from ligamentum nuchae
rhomboid minor
rhomboid minor insertion
medial border of the scapula at the spine
origin spinous process of the upper thoracic vertebrae
rhomboid major
rhomboid major insertion
medial border inferior to the spine of the scapula
Action of rhomboid major & minor
retract the scapula
Nerve innervation of the Rhomboids
Dorsal scapular nerve
Intrinsic muscles of the shoulder
Deltoid, Teres major, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis
Origin lateral third of the clavicle, acromion scapular spine
insertion of the Deltoid
Action of the deltoid
abduction of the arm, anterior fibers flex & medially rotate arm, posterior fibers extend and laterally rotate the arm
Nerve innervation of the Deltiod
Ancillary nerve (C5,6)
orgin inferior angle of the scapula
teres major
Insertion of teres major
medial lip of the intertubercular groove of the humerus
Action of teres major
adducts, medially rotates the arm (combines with lat to form post axillary fold)
Nerve innervation of teres major
lower subscapular nerve (C5,6)
Orgin from supraspinatus fossa of the scapula
Insertion of the supraspinatus
greater tubercle of the humerus
Action of the Supraspinatus
Abduction and helps the deltoid in this action
Nerve innervation of Supraspinatus
Suprascapular nerve (C5,6)
Origin infraspinatus fossa of the scapula
Insertion of infraspinatus
greater tubercle of the humerus
Action of the infraspinatus
laterally rotates arm
Nerve innervation of infraspinatus
Suprascapular nerve (C5,6)
Origin from the lateral border of the scapula
teres minor
Insertion of teres minor
greater tubercle of the humerus
Action of the teres minor
latterally rotates arm
Nerve innervation of teres minor
axillary nerve (C5,6)
Origin from the subscapular fossa of the scapula
Insertion of subscapularis
lesser tubercle of the humerus
Action of subscapularis
medially rotates the arm
Nerve of subscapularis
upper & lower subscapular nveres (both C5,6)
Nerves that supply sensory innervation to the shoulder
supraclavicular nerves from the cervical plexus (supply skin over acromium and upper part of delt)
Motor nerves of the shoulder
Brachial plexus supplies; dorsal scapular, long thoracic, suprascapular, upper subscapular, thoracodorsal, lower subscapular, & axillary

Accessory provides to trap and branches C3, C4 supply levator scapulae
Arteries supplying the shoulder
Transverse cervical, suprascapular areteries (branches of subclavian)
Dorsal Scapular, Thoracromial, lateral thoracic, subscapular, thoracodorsal, circumflex scapular, posterior circumflex humeral, anterior circumflex humeral
deep branch of the transverse cervical artery runs with the dorsal scapular nerve to the rhomboid
Dorsal scapular artery
gives rise to acromial and deltoid branches
thoracoacromial artery
accompanies the long thoracic nerve
lateral thoracic artery
Subscapular artery branches into
thoracodorsal and circumflex scapular arteries (runs with the thoracodorsal nerve, circ curves around the lateral border scapula to enter infraspinatous fossa
passes the axillary nerve through the quadrangular space
posterior circumflex humeral artery (anastamose w/ ant. circ humeral art)
defined by teres minor/major, long head of triceps brachii and humerus
quadrangular space
Anterior compartment of the arm contains 3 muscles innervated by
musculocutaneous nerve (C5-7)
Other structues passing through the anterior compartment of the arm
median, ulnar nerves, brachial artery/vein, basilic vein, radial nerve in the lower part
Muscles of the anterior compartment
Biceps brachii (long/short head)
Long head of the Biceps brachii arises from
supraglenoid tubercle of scapula
Short head arises from the
coracoid process of the scapula
The tendon of the short head orginates from the radial tuberosity and the fascia of the forearm via
bicipital aponeurosis
Arises from the coracoid process and inserts on the humerus, flexes, adducts the arm at the shoulder jt.
passes from the distal half of the humerus to the coronoid process of the ulna, prinicple flexor of the forearm
Posterior compartment of the arm has two muscles
Triceps (long, lateral, medial heads)
The nerve that innervates muscles of the posterior arm
radial nerve (C5-8, T1)
Artery and other nerves passing through posterior
Profunda brachii artery and ulna nerve (distal elbow jt)
arises from the infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula
long head of triceps
arise from humerus
lateral & medial heads of triceps
Triceps tendon inserts into the
olecranon process of the elbow
Action of the tricep
extensor of the forearm, aids in extension & adduction of the arm
arises from humerus, inserts on the ulna, assits triceps in extension of forearm
Five nerves supply cutaneous innervation to the arm
radial nerve, inferior lateral brachial, posterior brachial, medial brachial cutaneous, and intercostobrachial nerve
Radial nerve branches into
inferior lateral brachial, posterior brachial,
inferior lateral brachial, posterior brachial, supply the
inferior lateral and posterior skin of the arm
aries from the spinal cord of the brachial plexus
medial brachial cutaneous
supplies skin over the medial surface of the arm
intercostobrachial nerve
Four motor nerves in the arm
median, musculocutaneous, ulnar and radial
lateral to the brachial artery until midarm, then crosses to the medial side, has no branches in the arm
median nerve
nerve pierces the coracobrachialis muscle supplies the flexors of the anterior compartment continues to the forearm as lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve
Descends medially to the brachial artery then passes with the superior ulnar collateral artery posterior to the medial epicondyle of the humerus (no branches)
Ulnar nerve
enters the arm posterior to the brachial artery and then passes with the profunda brachii artery around humerus in the radial groove
Radial nerve
Continuation of the axillary artery and begins at the inferior border of teres major.
Brachial artery
Brachial artery branches into
profunda brachii artery, superior and inferior ulnar collateral arteries (circulation of the elbow)
Brachial artery divides
radial and ulna arteries in the cubital fossa
A hinge type jt of synovial jt that allows only flexion adn extension
elbow jt.
Elbow jt consists of
humeroulnar jt (trochlea to the trochlear notch of the ulna) humeroradial (capitulum to head of radius) & prox radioulnar (permits rotation of radius over the ulna)
Ligaments of the elbow jt
radial, ulnar collateral, and anular ligaments
thickenings of the fibrous capsule
radial, ulnar collateral,
encircles head of the radius and holds into position
anular ligament
Triangular area on the anterior aspect of the elbow, bound superior by imaginary line connecting epicondyles of the humerus, medially by pronator teres, lateral by brachioradialis
cubital fossa
the roof of the Cubital fossa is formed by
brachial fascia
the floor of the Cubital fossa is formed by
brachialis and supinator muscles.
Cubital fossa contains what structures
median nerve, brachial artery, biceps tendon, radial nerve, median cubital vein (crosses roof obliquely)