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114 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Composition of Bones
25-30% water,
Calcium phosphate & calcium Carbonate,
collagen (protein)
l
l
Effusion
Injury or irritation to the synovial layer causing over secretion of synovial fluid
What is the nutruitonal source for cartiliage?
Synovial fluid
What parts of joints are innervated?
Outer layer of joint capsule, ligaments, bursae
What part of joints are not innervated?
Disks, articular cartigae, synovial membrane
Common site for Bracial Plexus Compression
between the anterior and middle scalenes,
1st rib and clavicle,
Under pectorialis Minor
Common compression site for Median Nerve
LIgament of Struthers
Two head of pronator teres
Anterior interosseous branch
Carpal tunnel
Common compression sites for Radial Nerve
Radial tunnel (PIN)
Near Snuffbox
Common Compression site for Ulnar nerve
Cubital Tunnel
Guyon's Canal
What bone transmits forces from upper limb to axial skeleton?
Clavicle, attaches sternum to scapula
Common site for Bracial Plexus Compression
between the anterior and middle scalenes,
1st rib and clavicle,
Under pectorialis Minor
Four fossas of the scapular
Glenoid, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Subscapular
Ligaments of Sternoclaviclar joint
Costoclaivcular, anterior & posterior SC, interclavicular
Common compression site for Median Nerve
LIgament of Struthers
Two head of pronator teres
Anterior interosseous branch
Carpal tunnel
Common compression sites for Radial Nerve
Radial tunnel (PIN)
Near Snuffbox
Movements of SC joint
Elevation & depression, portractiona and retraction, Rotation
Only true articulation between axial skeleton and upper limb
sternoclavicular joint
Common Compression site for Ulnar nerve
Cubital Tunnel
Guyon's Canal
What bone transmits forces from upper limb to axial skeleton?
Clavicle, attaches sternum to scapula
Ligaments of Acromioclavicular joint
Acromioclavicular, Coracoclavicular (trapezoid, conoid)
Four fossas of the scapular
Glenoid, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Subscapular
Ligaments of Sternoclaviclar joint
Costoclaivcular, anterior & posterior SC, interclavicular
Movements of SternoClavicular joint
Elevation & depression, portraction and retraction, Rotation
Only true articulation between axial skeleton and upper limb
sternoclavicular joint
Ligaments of Acromioclavicular joint
Acromioclavicular, Coracoclavicular (trapezoid, conoid)
What portion of the GH joint capsule is loose to allow mobility?
Inferior portion
What are the ligaments of the GH joint?
Coracohumeral, Coracoacromial, Three gleno-humeral ( Superior, Inferior and MIddle)
Bursae of the GH joint
Subdeltoid (subacromial)
Subscapular
Is the Scapulothoracic Joint a "true" articulation
No, Slides between scapula and thoracic wall
What are the contents of the Subacromial space?
Subacromial bursa, supraspinatuous muscle and tendon, superior joint capsule, Longe head of biceps tendon
subacromial arch formed by what structures?
Acromion, Coracoid porcess, Coracoacromial ligament
Whats the difference between extrinisic and intrinsic shoulder muscles?
Extrinsic: arise from axial skeleton and inser on scapula Intrinsic: arise from scapular or clavicle and insert of humerus
Upward rotations of scapula
Upper & lower trapezius Serratus anterior
Downward roation of scapula
Levator scapulae, Rhomboids major and minor, Asssist: Pect major and Lats
Elevation of scapula
upper Trapezius, Levator scapulae
Depression of scapula
Pectoralis Minor, Lower trapezius
Protraction of scapula
Serratus Anterior, Pectoralis MInor
retraction of scapula
Rhomboids major & minor, MIddle trapezius
Flexion of humerus
Coracobrachialis, Clavicular head of pec major, Anterior Deltoid, Short head of biceps
Extension of humerus
Teres Major/Latissimus, Sternalhead of pect major, Post Deltoid, Infraspinatous/Teres Minor, Long head of Triceps
Depression of scapula
Pectoralis Minor, Lower trapezius
Protraction of scapula
Serratus Anterior, Pectoralis MInor
retraction of scapula
Rhomboids major & minor, MIddle trapezius
Flexion of humerus
Coracobrachialis, Clavicular head of pec major, Anterior Deltoid, Short head of biceps
Extension of humerus
Teres Major/Latissimus, Sternalhead of pect major, Post Deltoid, Infraspinatous/Teres Minor, Long head of Triceps
Abduction of Humerus
Middle Deltoid, Supraspinatous
Adduction of Humerus
Sternal head of pect major, Latissimus/Teres major, Coracobrachialis
External Rotation of Humerus
Teres Minor, Infraspinatous, Posterior Deltoid
Internal Rotation of Humerus
Subscapularis, Teres Major/Latissimus, Anterior Deltoid, Pec Major
Horizontal Adduction of humerus
Clavicular head of pec major, Anterior deltoid
Horizontal Abduction of humerus
Post Deltoid
What is initial scapul-humera rhythm for initial 30* of abduction?
4:1 ratio
scapul-humeral rhythem for abduction from 30 to 180*
4:5 ratio
Clinical picture of Adhesive Capsulitis?
IR LImited, ER limited, Pain free when shoulder immobile, Pain increases with AROM
What fold is adhered with Adhesive capsulitis?
Inferior fold
Humeroulnar joint of elbow formed by what bones?
Trochlea of humerus & Trochlear notch of ulna
Humeroradial joint of elbow formed by what bones?
Capitulum of humerus & radial head of radius
Muscles of elbow flexion
Biceps brachii, Bracialis, Brachioradialis (assist), Pronator Teres (assist)
Muscles of elbow extension
Triceps, Anconeous
Proximal radio-ulnar joint
Radial head and glides into radial notch of ulna
Distal radio-ulnar joint
Ulnar nothc slides around the head of the ulna
Ulnar head is more prominent in ____ and less prominent in full ____
Pronation, Supination
Muscles for supination
Supinator, Biceps brachii
Muscles for pronation
Pronator teres, Pronator Quadratus
Colles Fracture: dorsal or volar dislocation of radius?
Dorsal
Superfical muscles of Forearm flexors
Pronator Teres, FCR (to base of 2&3 metacarpals), Palmaris Longus ( to aponeurosis), FDS (PIP), FCU( Pisiform, 5th metacarpal) All arise from Medial epi
Deep muscles of forearm flexors
FDP, FPL, Pronator Quadratus
1st DC
APL, EPB
2nd DC
ECRL, ECRB
3rd DC
EPL
4th DC
EDC, EI
5th DC
EDM
6th DC
ECU
Distal Volar Angulations of radius
11 degress dorsal > volar radius (rule of 11s)
Distal Radial inclination of radius
22 degrees radial > ulnar side (rule of 11s)
Distal axial loading forces from gripping to radius and ulnar
82% radial, 18% ulnar
Proximal Carpal bones
Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform (mobile row)
Distal carpal row bones
Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, Hamate (taut ligaments)
Which area of TFCC is vascularized and unvascularized?
Central: Unvascularized
Peripherial: Vascularized
Which wrist column is force bearing? Control Column?
Central column is force bearing
Ulnar column is control column
Components of Central Column
Radius, lunate, proximal 2/3 scaphoid, copaitate, trapezoid, 2nd and 3rd metacarpals
Components of Ulnar Column
Ulnar styloid, TFCC, triquetrum proximal hamate, 4th & 5th metacarpals
Radio-carpal joint
Radius, scaphoid, lunate
Midcarpal joint
Between proximal and distal carpals rows
Carpal glides during Radial deviation
Triquetrum translates radially & dorsally on hamate
Lunate and scaphoid FLEX
Carpal glides during Ulnar deviation
Triquetrum glides distally on hamate.
Lunate and scaphoid EXTEND
Carpal glides during wrist extension
Scaphoid and Lunate EXTEND
carpal glides during wrist Flexion
Lunate and Scaphoid FLEX
Palmer flexion occurs at midcarpals and radiocarpal joint
Space of Poirier
Weak area between capitate and lunate
Grip strength max and min at what wrist position?
Max at 20* ext
Min at 40* flexion
Functional wrist ROM
40/40
Normal Scaphoid-Lunate angle
47*
In ulnar deviation, proximal row _____?
Extends
In Radial deviation, proximal row _____?
Flexes
Triquetral-Lunate Dissociation
-VISI
-Scaphoid and Lunate FLEX
-Triquetrum EXTEND
Clicking with UD to RD
Scapholunate dissociation
DISI
-Lunate & Triquetrum EXTEND
-Scaphoid FLEX
--Clicking with UD
Palmar midcarpal instability
-Ulnar arm of arcuate ligament disrupted
-May be caused by abnormal tilt of s/p DRF
-Noted snap into ext
MP collateral ligaments Taut in ____, Loose in ____
Taut in Flexion
Loose in Extension
MP capsule Loose packed position is_____, closed packed in _____.
Loose packed in Extension
Closed packed in Flexion
IP Collaterals Taut in ____, Loose in _____
Taut in Extension
Loose in Flexion
IP capsular Loose packed and closed packed position?
Loose packed in Flexion
Closed packed in Ext
Muscles of Thumb Flexion and Nerve Innervation
FPB-Median
FPL- Median
Muscles of Thumb Ext
EPB- Radial
EPL- Radial
Muscles of Thumb ABD
APB-Median
APL-Radial
Muscles of Thumb ADD
Add Pollicis-Ulnar
Muscles of Thumb Opposition
Opponens pollicis-Median
Flexors of MCP
Primary: Dorsal & Palmar Interossei- (Ulnar N)
Assists: Lumbricals (Med and Ulnar N), FDS (med n), FDP (Med & ulnar N)
IP Flexors
FDS- (med n)
FDP (med and ulnar n)
Muscles of Finger Extension
Ext Digitorum (rad n)
Lateral Bands with assit from lubricals and interossei
Muscles of Finger Abduction
Dorsal Interossei (ulnar n)
Muscles fo Finger ADD
Palmer Interossei (Ulnar n)
Lumbrical muscles originate from what side of the FDP?
Radial side
Palmer and Dorsal Interesseous act as abd or add?
PAD: Palmar ADD
DAB: Dorsal ABD