Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/62

Click to flip

62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What kind of active transport is the result of a gradient created by the primary pump?
secondary active transport
What is the fluid, flowing, moving model that is made of several components?
Fluid Mosaic Model
"cell drinking"
pinocytosis
What is the fatty acid/non-polar hydrophobic part of the phospholipid bilayer?
tail
infolding of plasma membrane forming a vesicle of fluid
pinocytosis
What is the outer boundary of the cell that controls what moves into/out of the cell?
plasma membrane
Which pump drives na/k out/in the cell?
sodium-potassium pump (duh)
What happens to the layers of the phospholipid bilayers?
They move across each other
What are 3 characteristics of a solute pump?
- requires carrier proteins
- used to move Na, K, Ca, ions/amino acids
- Moves subst. against concent. grad.
Which part of the cell contains cholesterol for stablization to keep it from blistering and prevents too much horizontal movement?
Phospholipid bilayer
What kind of coupled systems have substances moving in opp. directions?
antiport systems
What increases the cell's surface area?
microvilli
What kind of active transport is used to small molecules and ions?
solute pumping
Which jcts anchors cells together?
desmosomes
4 reasons why active transport is necessary
- subst. that can't pass thru membranes by diffusion
- too large for pores
- unable to dissolve thru membrane
- required to move against concent. gradient
What kind of diffusion occurs when substances that are non-polar and lipid soluble diffuse directly thru the lipid bilayer?
simple diffusion
Na mus be __ - __ x higher outside the cell relative to the indside
10-20x
What kind of transport usually depends on diffusion?
Passive transport
K must be __-__x highher inside the cell relative to the outside
10-20x
Which jct are fused protein molecules that are like a zipper?
Tight junction
"cell eating"
phagocytosis
What are four characteristics of glycoealyx (the sugar coating)?
- fuzzy layer on outside surface
- made of carbs
- holds adjacent cells together
- creates cell to cell recognition (immune sys)
purposes of epithelial tissue?
- protection
- absorption
- filtration
- excretion
- secretion
- sensory reception
Which proteins stay firmly in place?
integral proteins
what lacks the receptors for the uptake of cholesterol into the cells?
familial hypercholestolemia
Which kind of membrane allows some substances to pass thru?
Semipermeable
main use of bulk transport
for hormones, large particles, macromolecules
Which jcts allow the passage of chemical substances (between a neuron and another tissue cell)?
Gap junctions
3 results of secondary act. trans.:
- cells of intestine takes up subst.
- cells reg. pH
- musc. cells get glucose/amino acids
What are the little shaggy hairs that project from the cell surface?
Microvilli
What is secondary active transport?
driven indirectly by the passive ion gradient created by the operation of primary transport
Which jct prevents molecules from passing from cell to cell?
Tight junctions
What kind of transport is important for cell's normal fxn of muscle/nerve cells?
primary active transport
Which proteins are attached to exposed integral proteins on the internal side?
Peripheral proteins
what kind of bulk trans. encloses a membrane sac (vesicle) which fuses with the plasma membrane (secreting contents)?
exocytosis
What are 5 fxns of membrane proteins?
- transport (pumps)
- enzymes (to move things)
- receptors (for hormones)
- cell adhesion
- attached to cytoskeleton - helps retain the shapes of cell
What kind of coupled sys. has both subst. moving in the same direction?
Primary act. trans.
What kind of diffision occurs when the mol. is combined with protein carrier molecules in the plasma membrane and are released in the cytoplasm?
facilitated diffusion
Solute pumping requires atp because sodium is...?
being pumped against the concentration gradient
Which are communicating jnts?
Gap jcts
In solute pumping, there are more POS/NEG ions than POS/NEG?
pos than neg
Which jnts are anchoring jcts?
Desmosomes
What kind of active transport moves more than one subst. at a time?
Coupled systems
Which jnts are attached to strong guy-wires which extend from cell to cell?
desmosomes
What is the kind of bulk transport takes stuff INTO the cell?
endocytosis
Which junction is impermeable?
Tight junction
pressure exerted by water
hydrostatic pressure
What kind of transport requires carrier proteins and allows cells to take up nutrients that can't pass by any other means?
Active transport
Kind of tissue made of sheets of cells that cover a body surface?
epithelial
What is the tendancy of molecules/ions to scatter evenly thru out the environment?
diffusion
membrane has receptors that bind substances
recepted mediated endocytosis
What kind of diffusion occurs when a solvent diffuses thru a selectively permeable membrane?
osmosis
All cells in their naturals state has this kind of gradient..?
electrochemical gradient
What is primary active transport?
energy provided by the hydrolysis of ATP
What two elements are necessary for the H2O balance of all cells?
Na and K
plasma membrane extends out and engulfs material like food, macrophages
phagocytosis
What leads to atherosclerosis if not contolled?
familial hypercholestolemia
What kind of bulk transport is packaged by golgi apparatus?
exocytosis
tendancy to resist water entry
osmotic pressure
when osmotic pressure equals hydrostatic pressure...?
equilibrium for WATER diffusion occurs
total concentration of solutes in a solution
osmolarity
concentration of non-penetrating solutes
tonicity