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110 Cards in this Set

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What is the function of the cell membrane?
The cell membrane controls passage of substances into and out of cell.
What part of the cell contains and processes genetic information?
The nucleus contains and processes genetic information.
What part of the cell is composed of a phospholipid bilayer?
The cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer.
What part of the cell propels mucus and debris across the luminal surface?
The cilia uses rhythmic beating to propel mucus and debris across surface.
What part of the cell controls cell metabolism and protein synthesis?
The nucleus controls cell metabolism and protein synthesis.
What is the function of the nuclear envelope?
The nuclear envelope controls movement of molecules in and out of nucleus.
What part of the cell is considered the information bank for the cell?
The nucelus is considered the information bank for the cell.
Where are ribosomal subunits synthesized?
Ribosomal subunits are synthesized in the nucleolus.
Which part of the cells contains RNA?
RNA is contained within the nucleolus.
What is the site of adenosine triphosphate production?
Mitochondria is the area of adenosine triphosphate production.
What is the purpose of the golgi apparatus?
Golgi apparatus is responsible for packaging and alterations of subtances.
Which part of the cell is responsible for digestion of absorbed material?
The lysosomes are responsible for digestion of absorbed material.
What are 2 single celled organisms?
Protozoa and bacteria are 2 single celled organisms.
What are 5 abilities of a cell?
Cells can grow, develop, reproduce, adapt, and can be influenced by stimuli.
Who was responsible for developing the first microscope?
A French scientist by the name of Robert Hook developed the first microscope.
Which living organism is not made up of cells?
Viruses are not made up of cells.
Which scientist first identified cells?
Robert Hook first identified cells when studying crok.
What are the 2 classifications of cells?
The 2 classifications of cells are prokaryotic and eukaryotic.
What are 3 examples of organisms containing prokaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic cells are found in bacteria, algae, and mature red blood cells.
Why is the nucleus of a mature red blood cell dissolved?
The nucleus of a mature red blood cell is dissolved to carry more oxygen.
What is the main goal of a cell?
The main goal of a cell is to maintain homeostasis.
What are the 3 main functions of the cell membrane?
The 3 main functions of the cell membrane are boundary, gatekeeper & communication center.
What occurs if the membrane of the cell is broken?
If membrane is broken, entire cell dies and does not regenerate.
What 2 body systems does the cell membrane mimic?
The cell membrane acts like skin and skeletal system for the cell.
When cells exist with other cells like themselves, what is the name of this structure?
When cells exist with other similiar cells, it creates a tissue.
What are 2 other names for the cell membrane?
The cell membrane is also called the cell wall or plasma membrane.
What is the purpose of phopholipids?
Phospholipids maintain the homeostasis of cells.
What is the purpose of protein in the cell membrane?
Proteins in cell membrane move particles too large to pass thru membrane otherwise.
How are the nutritional needs of cells met?
Nutritional needs are met by exchanging gases, taking in water and minerals and food, and eliminating waste.
What 2 ways are the the nutritional needs of cells met?
Nutritional needs of cells are met thru passive transport and active transport.
What is the difference between passive and active transport?
Passive transport occurs spontaneously, active transport has to use energy.
What are the 2 methods of passive transport?
The 2 methods of passive transport are diffusion and osmosis.
What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the movement of small molecules from high concentration are to low area.
What is osmosis?
Fluid passes from inside of cell to outside to dissolve molecules so they can pass thru by themselves.
What is tonicity?
Tonicity is the ability of cells to attract water.
What are the 3 different classifications of tonicity?
Tonicity can be described as hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic.
What is hypertonic tonicity?
Hypertonic tonicity occurs when outside environment of cells has a higher concentration.
What is hypotonic tonicity?
Hypotonic tonicity occurs when concentration is higher within cell.
Which tonicity classification pulls fluid inside cell to dissolve particles?
Hypotonic states will cause cell to pull fluids inside to dissolve particles.
Which tonicity classification pushes fluid outside cells to dilute high concentrations?
Hypertonic states cause cells to push fluids outside to dissolve particles.
What are 3 commonly used isotonic fluids in veterinary medicine?
Commonly used isotonic solutions are LRS, D5W, and normal saline.
Which 3 parts of the cell can be seen with a normal microscope?
Parts of the cell that can be seen with a normal microscope are membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus.
What is the purpose of cytoplasm?
The purpose of cytoplasm is to suspend and support all organelles within the cell.
What are the 3 regions of the nucleus?
The main regions of the nucleus are the chromatin, neucleolus, and nuclear envelope.
Which part of the nucleus makes up chromosomes?
The chromatin makes up chromosomes.
Which part of the cell is nicknamed "the messenger"?
The nucleolus is also known as "the messenger".
What is the purpose of the nuclear envelope?
The nuclear envelope protects nucleus and regulates what goes in and out of nucleus.
What is the purpose of centrosomes?
The only purpose of centrosomes is during cell reproduction to help separate chromosones.
What is the purpose of endoplasmic reticulum?
The ER is a transport and production mechanism for fats and carbohydrates.
What is the main job of rough ER?
The main job of rough ER is to modify and transport proteins made by ribosomes to golgi.
What is the site where amino acids are combined to make polypeptide chains?
Ribosomes are the site where amino acids are combined to make polypeptide chains.
Where are ribosomes found?
Ribosomes are found on surface of rough ER or floating loose in cytoplasm.
What are vacuoles?
Vacuoles are any type of inclusion.
When is a vacuole created?
A vacuole is created whenever phagocytosis or pinocytosis occurs.
What is the purpose of smooth ER?
Smooth ER is the site for production and modification of fats and carbohydrates.
What is a common nickname for lysosomes?
Lysosomes are also called "suicide sacs".
What part of the cell is considered "the powerhouse"?
"The powerhouse" of the cell is the mitochondria.
What is the job of the golgi apparatus?
The golgi apparatus is to modify whatever is being excreted by cell into substance that can be utilized by other tissues and cells.
What is the purpose of lysosomes?
Lysosomes contain enzymes break down the substances in vacuoles, and are responsible for autolysis.
Where are the ingested nutrients of substances conveted to energy?
Substances manufactured by cell are converted to energy.
What are 3 reasons cells must divide?
Cells must divide for growth, reproduction, and replacement of worn out or injured cells.
Which type of cells are utilized in the process of mitosis?
Somatic or diploid cells are utilized in process of mitosis.
Where does meiosis occur?
Meiosis occurs in ovaries or in testes.
What type of cell is involved in reproduction?
Reproduction occurs in haploid cells.
What is the end product of spermatogenesis?
The end product of spermatogenesis is 4 viable daughter cells or gametes.
What is oogenesis?
Oogenesis is the creation of new ova.
What is the difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?
Oogenesis only creates one viable daughter cell.
After ova is fertilized by sperm, what is produced?
A zygote is produced after fertilization.
What is embryogenesis?
Embryogenesis is the formation of a new being.
Where does morula cleavage occur?
Morula cleavage occurs in ovarian tube.
Where does blastula cleavage occur?
Blastula cleavage occurs in the wall of the uterine horn.
How many cells are involved in morula cleavage?
Morula cleavage consists of 16 cells.
How many cells are involved in blastula cleavage?
Blastula cleavage consists of 300 to 400 cells.
What is gastrulation?
Gastrulation is the point in growth where there is a differntiation between internal and external parts.
What is the ectoderm?
The ectoderm is part of the tube which will eventually become nerves, brain, spinal cord, and integumentary.
What is the mesoderm?
The mesoderm is the middle layer that will form bones, muscles, cartilage, blood, kidneys, and gonads.
What is the endoderm?
The endoderm is the inside layer which forms the hollow tube for digestive, respiratory, and glands.
What is organogenesis?
Organogenesis is the formation of organs.
What is the control center of the cell?
The nucleus is the control center of the cell.
What packages and secretes substances?
The golgi apparatus packages and secretes substances.
What is found in pairs and pulls the chromosomes to separate poles during cell division?
The centrioles are found in pairs and pulls the chromosones to separate poles.
What propels mucus and debris across the cell membrane?
Cilia propels mucus and debris across the cell membrane.
What produces lipids and steroids?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum produces lipids and steroids.
What is the site of protein synthesis?
The site of protein synthesis are the ribosomes.
What is the transport system throughout the cytoplasm?
The microtubules are the transport system throughout the cytoplasm.
What part of the cell contains RNA?
The nucleolus contains RNA.
Which part of the cell produces ATP?
Mitochondria produces ATP.
What is the jelly like substance that suspends the organelles within the cell?
The jelly like substance in the cell that supports organelles is the cytoplasm.
What is responsible for digestion of absorbed material?
Lysosomes are responsible for digestion of absorbed material.
What separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm?
The nuclear envelope separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
What part of the cell transports and modifies proteins?
The rough endoplasmic reticulum transports and modifies proteins.
What is the boundary, gatekeeper, and communications center of the cell?
The cell membrane serves as boundary, gatekeeper, and communications center.
What part of the cell forms chromosomes?
The chromatin forms chromosones.
What is the difference in concentration of two solutions called?
The difference between concentrations of two solutions is called the pressure gradient.
What is composed of two centrioles?
A centrosome is composed of two centrioles.
What is responsible for surrounding and removing harmful material from the cell?
Lysosomes surround and remove harmful material from the cell.
What are the 2 major functional regions of the eukaryotic cell?
The 2 major functional regions of the eukaryotic cell are the nucleus and cytoplasm.
What part of the cell is responsible for the synthesis and transport of glycogen, lipids, and steroids?
The smooth ER is responsbile for synthesis and transport of glycogen, lipids, and steroids.
What is epithelial?
Epithelial pertains to the cellular covering of internal and external surfaces of body.
What is synthesis?
Synthesis is the creation of a compound by union of elements.
What are the 3 skin layers?
The 3 skin layers are the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous.
What are some of the functions of skin?
Skin acts as an enclosing barrier, temperature regulator, environmental protection, sensory preceptor, flexibility, storage, and pigmentation.
Flaky skin and greasy hair can be an indicator of what condition?
Flaky skin and greasy hair can be a sign of diabetes.
What are the 4 shape classifications of epithelial tissue?
The 4 shape classifications are squamous, cuboidal, columnar, and pseudostratified columnar.
What are the 4 arrangement classifications of epithelial tissue?
The 4 arrangement classifications are simple, stratified, transitional, and glandular.
What epithelial shape classification is found in most secreting glands?
Secreting glands contain cuboidal epithelials.
What epithelial shape classification is found in upper respiratory tract?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelials are found in upper respiratory tract.
What epithelial shape classification is found in the nose?
Columnar epithelials are located in the nose.
What epithelial shape classification covers most of the external body?
Squamous epithelials cover most of the external body.
What is a transitional arrangement of epithelial tissue?
Transitional epithelials are a combination of cuboidal and squamous.