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79 Cards in this Set

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premature closure of one or more cranial sutures during the first 18 to 20 months of life, resulting in a distorted skull. Premature closure of the saggital suture produces a narrow skull; premature closure of the coronal suture results in a broad skull. Premature closure of all sutures restricts brain growth and development; surgery is necessary to prevent brain damage
surgical procedure in which part of the cranium is removed. It may be permormed to remove a blood clot, a brain tumor, or a sample of brain tissue for biopsy
surgical procedure to remove a vertebral lamina. It may be performed to access the vertebral cavity and relieve the symptoms of a herniated disc
narrowing of the spinal cavity in the lumbar part of the vertebral column, due to hypertropy of the surrounding bone or soft tissues. It may be caused by arthritic changes in the intervertebral discs and is a common cause of back and leg pain.
lumbar spine stenosis
surgical procedure in which two or more vertebrae of the vertebreal column are stabilized with a bone graft or synthetic device. It may be performed to treat a fracture of a vertebra or following removal of a herniated disk
spinal fusion
injury to the neck region due to severe hyperextension of the head followed by severe hyperflexion of the head -sypmtoms are related to stretching and tearing of ligaments and muscles, vertebral fraxures, and herniated vertebral discs
whiplash injury
- is a “U” shaped bone located in the neck between the larynx and mandible.
A. It is not attached to any other bones but is suspended from the styloid process of the temporal bone.
B. It is often fractured during strangulation, so it is important in criminal investigations.
C. It supports the tongue by providing a point for attachment of some tongue muscles.
Hyoid bone
Sternum (breastbone) consists of three parts:
Xiphoid process
Bone Surface Markings
Depressions & Openings

narrow slit between 2 bones
Bone Surface Markings
Depressions & Openings

shallow depression
Bone Surface Markings
Depressions & Openings

Bone Surface Markings
Depressions & Openings

tubelike hole
Bone Surface Markings
Processes at joints:

large round bump at the end of the bone
Bone Surface Markings
Processes at joints:

smooth flat articular surface
Bone Surface Markings
Processes at joints:

rounded articular projection at the end of a bone
Bone Surface Markings
attachments points (for muscles, tendons & ligaments):

projection above a condyle
Bone Surface Markings
attachments points (for muscles, tendons & ligaments):

large ridge
Bone Surface Markings
attachments points (for muscles, tendons & ligaments):

small ridge
Bone Surface Markings
attachments points (for muscles, tendons & ligaments):

very large projection
Bone Surface Markings
attachments points (for muscles, tendons & ligaments):

small rounded projection
Bone Surface Markings
attachments points (for muscles, tendons & ligaments):

large rounded projection (often roughened)
- consists of the 80 bones that run along the body’s main axis. (E.g. Skull bones, auditory ossicles (ear bones), hyoid bone, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx).
Axial skeleton
- consists of the 126 bones of the upper and lower limbs and also the girdles that connect these to the skeleton (E.g. all other bones).
Appendicular skeleton
- are longer than wide and have a shaft. Are slightly curved for strength.
Long bones
- are somewhat cube shaped (bones)
Short bones
- are composed of two parallel plates of compact bone that are relatively wide. These plates enclose a thin layer of spongy bone.
Flat bones
- are complex shaped with many projections.
Irregular bones
- small bones that are imbedded in tendons (e.g. patella).
Sesamoid bones
- are small bones that occur with immovable interlocking joints (sutures) of some cranial bones.
Sutural (wormian) bones
cranial bones (8)
parietal (2)
temporal (2)
- this is the only cranial bone that articulates with all other cranial bones.
Sphenoid bone
- is the major supporting structure of the nasal cavity. It forms most of the sidewalls and roof, also the upper part of the nasal septum. Also, it forms a small part of the cranial floor.
Ethmoid bone
- contains the lacrimal fossa that helps direct tears into the nasal cavity.
Lacrimal bone
- paired, L-shaped bones that form part of the hard palate (with maxillae), also part of the floor and walls of the nasal cavity, and a small part of the floor of the orbit (eye socket).
Palatine bones
- of the ethmoid bone has holes through which olfactory (smell) nerves pass.
Cribriform plate
- of the ethmoid bone is where the meninges that cover the brain attach anteriorly.
Crista galli
-cradles the pituitary gland.
Sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
- articulate with the superior articular facets of the atlas.
Occipital condyles
- is where the spinal cord meets the medulla oblongata of the brain.
Foramen magnum
- the hyoid bone is suspended from these. It also serves as point of attachment for muscles of the tongue.
Styloid processes of the temporal bones
- this is where the condylar process of the mandible articulates with the mandibular fossa and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
- if these do not fuse completely in development these results in a cleft palate.
Palatine processes of the maxillae
contain “air cells.” These can become infected in mastoiditis and this can spread to the middle ear and brain (common before antibiotics).
Mastoid portions of the temporal bones-
- the opening in the temporal bone through which sound waves travel into the ear.
External auditory meatus
-forms part of the cranial floor and houses the middle and inner ears.
Petrous portions of the temporal bones
- create turbulence in inhaled air of the nasal cavity to help cleanse it, warm it, and moisten it
Nasal conchae
- are arches that contain sockets (alveoli) for the teeth.
Alveolar processes of the maxillae and mandible
- starts at the mandibular foramen and runs obliquely through each ramus to carry inferior alveolar nerves and blood vessels to mandibular teeth.
Mandibular canal
- (7 vertebrae) connects to the head.
Cervical region
- (12 vertebrae) articulates with the ribs.
Thoracic region
- (5 vertebrae) is the largest and strongest vertebrae.
Lumbar region
- (fusion of 5 vertebrae) is a somewhat flattened triangular bone that serves as a strong foundation for the pelvic girdle (coxal bones).
- (tailbone, is a fusion of, usually, 4 vertebrae) It is a triangular bone. It points more inferiorly in females and more anteriorly in males
- a peg-like structure on the axis that articulates with the atlas and it allows a side-to-side rotation of the head. Death due to whiplash typically occurs because it is driven into the medulla oblongata of the brain.
Dens (odontoid process)
- is the largest hole; the spinal cord passes through it. Collectively, these form the vertebral (spinal) canal.
Vertebral foramen
- an opening on each side, which allows for the passage of spinal nerves.
Intervertebral foramen
- articulate with adjacent vertebrae, other processes serve in muscle attachment.
Articular processes
has a large spinous process seen and felt at the base of the neck.
- is the weight-bearing part of each vertebra.
Body (centrum)
- a cartilaginous and fibrous structure between vertebrae, which forms a strong joint, but, permits movement of vertebrae. It also absorbs vertical shock.
Intervertebral disk
- is an inferior opening to the vertebral canal. Caudal anesthesia agents may be injected here.
Sacral hiatus
- processes on either side of the sacral hiatus and serve as landmarks for anesthesia
Sacral cornua
- is an important obstetrical landmark for measurements of the pelvis.
Sacral promontory
- articulates with the 5th lumbar vertebra.
Base of the sacrum
protects internal organs. - consists of costal cartilages, sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebral bodies
thoracic cage
- are paired cavities that are lined with mucous membrane which are continuous with the nasal cavity. -They occur in the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillae bones.
Paranasal sinuses
- articulates with the clavicle, also cartilage of ribs 1 and 2.
- articulates with cartilage of ribs 2-10.
Body of the sternum
does not articulate with any ribs, but serves as point of attachment for some abdominal muscles. It consists of cartilage in infancy and childhood.
Xiphoid process-
There are ____ pairs of ribs in males and females.
- first 7 pairs, and have a direct anterior attachment to the sternum by costal cartilage.
True (vertebrosternal) ribs
- 8-12th pairs and their costal cartilage either indirectly attaches to the sternum or it does not attach to the sternum at all
False ribs
- are between the ribs. They can serve as access points for thoracic surgery.
Intercostal spaces
- nucleus pulposus ruptures its surrounding fibrocartilage and protrudes through, most often posteriorly. This exerts pressure on spinal nerves causing acute pain. They occur most frequently in the lumbar region.
Herniated (slipped) disk
- a lateral curving of the spinal cord, usually in the thoracic region.
- an exaggeration of the thoracic curve.
Kyphosis (round shouldered in mild cases)
- an exaggeration of the lumbar curve.
Lordosis (hollow back)
- the laminae of vertebrae do not unite at the midline, this is caused by folic acid deficiency.
Spina bifida
- usually from acute flexion of the neck or compression in various regions. May result in spinal cord or spinal nerve damage.
Fractures of the Vertebral Column