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66 Cards in this Set

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Epithelial tissue
covers and protects the body surface, lines body cavities, specializes in moving substances into and out of the body or particular organs (secretion, excretion, and absorption), and forms many glands.
Connective tissue
is specialized to support the body and its parts, connect and hold them together, transport substances through the body, and protect it from foreign invaders. The cells in connective tissue are often relatively far apart and separated by large quantities of matrix.
Muscle tissue
produces movement; it moves the body and its parts. Muscle cells are specialized for contractility and produce movement by shortening the contractile units found in cytoplasm.
Nervous tissue
may be the most complex tissue in the body. It specializes in communication between the various parts of the body and in integration of their activities. This tissue's major function is the generation of complex messages for the coordination of body functions.
the extracellular matrix (ECM)
Tissues differ in the amount and kind of material between the cells—
Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
Proteins

Structural proteins
Collagen—strong, flexible protein fiber
Elastin—elastic fibers
Includes glycoproteins—proteins with a few carbohydrate attachments

Glycoprotein attachments allow local communication within a tissue
Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
Components (cont.)

Proteoglycans
Hybrid molecules that are mostly carbohydrates attached to a protein backbone
Ex chondroitin sulfate, heparin, and hyaluronate
Different proteoglycans give different characteristics to ECM, such as thickness, shock absorption
Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
Functions
Helps bind tissues together structurally
Allows local communication among ECM and various cells—through connection via integrins in plasma membranes
Embryonic Development of Tissues

Primary germ layers
Endoderm
Mesoderm
Ectoderm
Tissue Development

Name 2 types & explain
Gastrulation—process of cell movement and differentiation, which results in development of primary germ layers
Histogenesis—the process by which the primary germ layers differentiate into different kinds of tissue
Epithelial Tissue
Types and locations
Epithelium is divided into two types:
Membranous (covering or lining) epithelium
Glandular epithelium
Locations
Membranous epithelium—covers the body and some of its parts; lines the serous cavities, blood and lymphatic vessels, and respiratory, digestive, and genitourinary tracts
Glandular epithelium—secretory units of endocrine and exocrine glands
Epithelial Tissue
What are their Functions
Protection
Sensory functions
Secretion
Absorption
Excretion
Epithelial Tissue
Generalizations about epithelial tissue
Limited amount of matrix material
Membranous type attached to a basement membrane
Avascular
Cells are in close proximity, with many desmosomes and tight junctions
Capable of reproducing itself
Epithelial Tissue
Classification of epithelial tissue
Membranous (covering or lining) epithelium
Classification based on cell shape
Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar
Pseudostratified columnar
Epithelial Tissue
Classification of epithelial tissue (cont.)
Classifications based on layers of cells

Simple epithelium
Simple squamous epithelium
One-cell layer of flat cells
Permeable to many substances
Examples: endothelium—lines blood vessels; mesothelium—pleura
Epithelial Tissue

Simple cuboidal epithelium
One-cell layer of cuboidal cells
Found in many glands and ducts
Epithelial Tissue
Simple columnar epithelium

2 cards
Single layer of tall, column-shaped cells
Cells often modified for specialized functions—e.g., goblet cells (secretion), cilia (movement), microvilli (absorption)
Often lines hollow visceral structures
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Epithelial Tissue
Simple columnar epithelium
Columnar cells of differing heights
All cells rest on basement membrane but may not reach the free surface above
Cell nuclei at odd and irregular levels
Found lining air passages and segments of male reproductive system
Motile cilia and mucus are important modifications
Epithelial Tissue
Stratified epithelium
Stratified squamous (keratinized) epithelium
Multiple layers of flat, squamous cells (Figure 5-9)
Cells filled with keratin
Covers outer skin on body surface
Stratified squamous (nonkeratinized) epithelium
Lines vagina, mouth, and esophagus
Free surface is moist
Primary function is protection
Epithelial Tissue
Stratified epithelium (cont.)
Stratified cuboidal epithelium
Two or more rows of cells are typical
Basement membrane is indistinct
Located in sweat gland ducts and pharynx
Stratified columnar epithelium
Multiple layers of columnar cells
Only most superficial cells are typical in shape
Rare
Located in segments of male urethra and near anus
Epithelial Tissue
Stratified epithelium (cont.)
Stratified transitional epithelium (Figure 5-11)
Located in lining of hollow viscera subjected to stress (e.g., urinary bladder)
Often 10 or more layers thick
Protects organ walls from tearing
Epithelial Tissue
Glandular epithelium
Specialized for secretory activity
Exocrine glands—discharge secretions into ducts
Endocrine glands—“ductless” glands; discharge secretions directly into the blood or interstitial fluid
Exocrine Glands
Structural classification of exocrine glands
Multicellular exocrine glands are classified by the shape of their ducts and the complexity of their duct system
Shapes include tubular and alveolar
Simple exocrine glands—only one duct leads to the surface
Compound exocrine glands—have two or more ducts
Epithelial Tissue
Glandular epithelium (cont.)
Functional classification of exocrine glands
Apocrine glands
Secretory products collect near apex of cell and are secreted by pinching off the distended end
Secretion process results in some damage to cell wall and some loss of cytoplasm
Mammary glands are good examples of this secretory type
Epithelial Tissue
Glandular epithelium (cont.)
Functional classification of exocrine glands
Holocrine glands
Secretion products, when released, cause rupture and death of the cell
Sebaceous glands are holocrine
Epithelial Tissue
Glandular epithelium (cont.)
Functional classification of exocrine glands
Merocrine glands
Secrete directly through cell membrane
Secretion proceeds with no damage to cell wall and no loss of cytoplasm
Most prevalent gland type
Connective Tissue
Functions, characteristics, and types
General function—connects, supports, transports, and protects
Connective Tissue
Four main types

4 cards
Fibrous
Bone
Cartilage
Blood
Connective Tissue
Four main types
Fibrous connective tissue
Loose, ordinary (areolar) connective tissue
Most widely distributed of all tissues. Consists of collagenous and elastic fibers loosely interwoven & imbedded in soft viscous ground substance. Several kinds of cells present: notably, fibroblasts and macrophages; also mast cells, plasma cells, fat cells,and some white blood cells. Function—stretchy, flexible connection
Connective Tissue
Four main types
Adipose tissue
Similar to loose connective tissue but contains mainly fat cells
Functions—protection, insulation, support, and food reserve
collagen

(KAHL-ah-jen)
principal organic constituent of connective tissue
connective tissue

(koh-NEK-tiv)
most abundant and widely distributed tissue in the body
epithelial tissue

(ep-i-THEE-lee-al)
covers the body and its parts; lines various parts of the body; forms continuous sheets that contain no blood vessels; classified according to shape and arrangement
histogenesis

(hiss-toh-JEN-eh-sis)
formation of tissues from primary germ layers of embryo
histology

(his-TOL-oh-jee)
branch of microscopic anatomy that studies tissues; biology of tissues
inflammation

(in-flah-MAY-shun)
group of responses to a tissue irritant marked by signs of redness, heat, swelling, and pain
Matrix
extracellular substance of a tissue; for example, the matrix of bone is calcified, whereas that of blood is liquid; see also extracellular matrix (ECM)
Mucous Membrane
epithelial membrane that lines body surfaces opening directly to the exterior and secretes mucus
Muscle tissue
specialized tissue type that produces movement
Nervous Tissue
specialized tissue type consisting of neurons and glia that provides rapid communication and control of body function
Regeneration
process of replacing missing tissue with new tissue by means of cell division
Serous Membrane
two-layer epithelial membrane that lines body cavities and covers surfaces of organs
Squamous
scalelike
Tissue
group of similar cells that performs a common function
Name the four basic tissue types and give the major function of each.

1
Epithelial tissue covers and protects the body surface, lines body cavities, specializes in moving substances into and out of the body or particular organs (secretion, excretion, and absorption), and forms many glands.
Name the four basic tissue types and give the major function of each.
2
Connective tissue is specialized to support the body and its parts, connect and hold them together, transport substances through the body, and protect it from foreign invaders. The cells in connective tissue are often relatively far apart and separated by large quantities of matrix.
Name the four basic tissue types and give the major function of each.
3
Muscle tissue produces movement; it moves the body and its parts. Muscle cells are specialized for contractility and produce movement by shortening the contractile units found in cytoplasm.
Name the four basic tissue types and give the major function of each.
4
Nervous tissue may be the most complex tissue in the the body. It specializes in communication between the various parts of the body and in integration of their activities. This tissue's major function is the generation of complex messages for the coordination of body functions.
What is the ECM? What is it made of?
Complex, nonliving material between cells in a tissue.
besides water, made up mostly of proteins and proteoglycans
What is a primary germ layer?
germ layers called endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm
List at least three functions of epithelial tissue.
covers and protects the body surface, lines body cavities, specializes in moving substances into and out of the body or particular organs (secretion, excretion, and absorption), and forms many glands.
What are the three basic shapes of epithelial cells?
squamous,cells r flat & platelike. cuboidal, cube-shaped & have more cytoplasm. columnar higher than they r wide & appear narrow & cylindrical. pseudostratified columnar only 1 layer of oddly shaped columnar cells.
Distinguish between a simple epithelial tissue and a stratified epithelial tissue.
Simple is 1 layer of cells & stratified are cells layered 1 on another
How do exocrine glands secrete their products?
discharge their secretion products into ducts.
Discuss endocrine glands
ductless glands because they discharge their secretion products (hormones) directly into blood or interstitial fluid
Name three kinds of fibers that may be present in a connective tissue ECM. Of what are they made?
collagenous (or white), reticular, or elastic (or yellow). Fibroblasts and some other cells produce these protein fibers. Collagenous fibers are tough and strong, reticular fibers are delicate, and elastic fibers are extensible and elastic
Describe what makes up the fibers in a connective tissue matrix
protein fibers, a number of proteoglycans made up of polysaccharide chains often containing glucosamine and bound to a protein core
Name four types of fibrous connective tissue and briefly describe each
areolar,loose becuz it stretches adipose,contains predominantly fat cells
reticular, a 3 dimentional web dense fibrous packed densely together
What makes bone tissue hard?
inorganic mineral crystals make up 66% of ECM crystals make it hard
What is unique about the matrix of blood tissue?
it exists in a liquid state and contains neither ground substance nor fibers
Name the two types of involuntary muscle. Where is each found in the body?
Smooth muscle tissue, also sometimes called visceral muscle tissue is found in the walls of the viscera (hollow internal organs—e.g., the stomach, intestines, and blood vessels; Cardiac muscle tissue makes up the wall of the heart
What are the two principal types of cell in nervous tissue? What is the function of each?
several types of neurons (conducting cells) and neuroglia (support cells)Communication between body parts integration/regulation of body functions
Which two of the four major tissue types have the greatest capacity to regenerate after an injury?
Epithelial and connective
Name the four principal types of body membranes. Which are epithelial membranes?
Epithelial membranes,

Connective tissue membranes,
Which are epithelial membranes?

1
cutaneous membrane,covers body surfaces that are exposed to the external environment
serous membranes, lines cavities that are not open to the external environment and covers many of the organs inside these cavities.
Which are epithelial membranes?

2
mucous membranes line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior