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33 Cards in this Set

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List the major subdivisions of the human nervous system
Central and peripheral.
What two organs make up the central nervous system?
Brain and spinal cord
What are the five main types of glia?
Astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, oligondendrocytes, and Schwann cells
Describe the myelin sheath found on some nerve fibers
The myelin sheath is formed by layers of Schwann cell membrane containing the white, fatty substance called myelin. It is important in the proper conduction of impulses along the nerve fiber
What is a neurilemma?
The neurilemma is a nerve sheath formed as each Schwann cell wraps around the nerve fiber, and its nucleus and cytoplasm are squeezed to the perimeter
List the characteristics of life in humans
Autopoiesis—organisms are self-organizing or self-maintaining and nonliving structures are not.
Define the term metabolism as it applies to the characteristics of life
Metabolism is the sum of all physical and chemical reactions in the body. Each characteristic of life is related to these reactions.
What are the three layers of connective tissues that hold the fibers of a nerve together?
Endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium
What is the difference between a nerve and a tract?
Nerves are bundles of peripheral nerve fibers held together by several layers of connective tissues. Bundles of nerve fibers are called tracts.
How does white matter differ from gray matter?
White matter is made up of myelinated fibers. Cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers make up the gray matter
Under what circumstances can a nerve fiber be repaired?
Nerve fibers can sometimes be repaired if damage is not extensive, when the cell body and neurilemma remain intact and scarring has not occurred.
In a resting neuron, what positive ion is most abundant outside the plasma membrane? What positive ion is most abundant inside the plasma membrane?
Sodium is more abundant outside, while potassium is more abundant inside
What is meant by the term threshold potential?
18. The threshold potential occurs when the magnitude of the local depolarization surpasses a limit (typically -59 mV).
How does impulse conduction in an unmyelinated fiber differ from impulse conduction in a myelinated fiber?
Myelinated fibers conduct impulses faster than unmyelinated fibers
What are the three structural components of a synapse?
Synaptic knob, synaptic cleft, and the plasma membrane of the postsynaptic neuron.
What is an EPSP? What is an IPSP?
EPSP: excitatory postsynaptic potential. IPSP: inhibitory postsynaptic potential
How do excitatory neurotransmitters differ from inhibitory neurotransmitters?
Excitatory neurotransmitters have an excitatory effect at synapses. Inhibitory neurotransmitters have an inhibitory effect at the synapses
What are the four chemical classes of neurotransmitters?
Acetycholine, amines, amino acids, and other small molecules
What are neuromodulators?
A neuromodulator is a “cotransmitter” that regulates or modulates the effects of the neurotransmitter(s) released along with it
Action Potential
nerve impulse; membrane potential of an active neuron
Axon
in a neuron, the single process that extends from the axon hillock and transmits impulses away from the cell body
Central Nervous System
brain and spinal cord
Dendrite
in a neuron, the single process that extends from the axon hillock and transmits impulses away from the cell body
Gila
nonexcitable supporting cells of nervous tissue; formerly called neuroglia
Membrane Potential
difference in electrical charge between inside and outside of the plasma membrane
Myelin
lipoprotein substance in the myelin sheath around many nerve fibers that contributes to high-speed conductivity of impulse
Nerve
bundle nerve fibers, plus surrounding connective tissue, located outside the brain or spinal cord
Neuron
nerve cell, including its processes (axons and dendrites)
Neuromodulator
“cotransmitter” that regulates the effects of neurotransmitter(s) released along with it
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
consists of the nerve tissues that lie in the periphery, or “outer regions,” of the nervous system.
Reflex Arc
automatic involuntary reaction to a stimulus resulting from a nerve impulse passing over a reflex arc
Synapse
membrane-to-membrane junction between a neuron and another neuron, effector cell, or sensory cell; function to propagate action potential (via neurotransmitters)
Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 12 Nervous System Cells
Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 12 Nervous System Cells