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89 Cards in this Set

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Body Planes
There are 3 major body planes that lie at right angles to each other.
Cells
Are the smallest & most numerous units that possess & exhibit the basic characteristics of living matter
Dissection
Cutting it apart. Remains a principal technique used to isolate and study the structural components or parts of the human body.
Homeostasis
The relatively constant states maintained by the body.

Standing or staying the same.
Hypothesis
Idea or principle to be tested in experiments.
Metabolism
Each characteristic of life is related to the sum total of all the phsical and chemical reactions occurring in the body.
Negative feedback
Negative feedback control systems are inhibitory. They oppose a change.
Organ
Organization of several different kinds of tissues to perform a special function. Organs represent discrete & functionally complex operational units.
Organism
More than the sum of its parts. An integrated assemblage of interactive structures that is able to survive and flourish in an often hostile environment.Self organizing
Physiology
Deals with body function - that is, how the body parts work to support.
Somatotype
A term used to describe a particular category of body build or physique.
Endomorph
Heavy, rounded physique characterized by large accumulations of fat in the truck and thighs.
Mesomorph
Muscular physique
Ectomorph
Thin, fragile physique characterized by little body fat accumulation
Structure
Structure determines function, and function influences the actual anatomy of an organism over time.
Systems
Are the most complex of the organizational units of the body. There are 10 systems.
Tissue
An organization of similar cells specialized to perform a certain function. Tissue cells surrounded by non living matrix.
Characteristics of life that are considered most important in humans.
Responsiveness, conductivity, growth, respiration, digestion, absorption, secretion, excretion, circulation, reproduction.
Describe how science develops new principles.
The scientific method. Initial observation or results from other experiments may lead to the formation of a new hypothesis. As more testing is performed to eliminate outside influences or biases & ensure consistent results, scientists begin to have more confidence in the principle and call it a theory or law.
List the ways physiology can be subdivided as a scientific discipline.
1 the type of organism involved, ie human or plant physiology. 2- organizational level, ie molecular or cellular physiology. 3- specific or systemic function being studied, ie neurophysiology, respiratory or cardiovascular physiology.
Discuss the term metabolism as it applies to the characteristics of life
Each characteristic of life is related to sum total of all the physical and chemical reactions occurring in the body.
List the levels of organization of the human body.
Chemical, organelle, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism.
Identify organelles.
Mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum.
List the major tissue types.
Epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous.
List the major organ systems.
Integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive.
Give and example of how the chemical macromolecule DNA can have an influence on body structure.
It directs the differentiation of specialized cells in the lungs during development so that they can effectively contribute to respiratory function.
Discuss how structure relates to function at the tissue level of organization in the respiratory system.
Structures of the respiratory tubes & lungs assist in efficient & rapid movement of air & also make possible the exchange of critical respiratory gases such as o2 & co2 between the air in the lungs & the blood.
Contrast each superior/inferior, anterior/posterior, medial/lateral, dorsal/ventral
towards the top - towards the bottom, front and back, towards the center - towards the sides, along the vertebral surface on back - along the belly surface on the front
Identify how anatomical left is different from you left.
Anatomical left is on the right side of the body because the body is facing forward.
List and define the major planes that are used to divide the body into parts.
Sagittal - a lengthwise plane running from F to B; divides the body or any parts into R & L. Coronal a lw plane running from side 2 side, divides A to P. Transverse a crosswise plane body or parts into upper or lower
Explain the anatomical rosette in anatomical illustrations.
A helpful diagram of the planes & direction of the body
Discuss how a person's body type might influence their their health risks.
The knowledge of physique can provide professionals w/ vital info useful in such areas as disease screening procedures, programs designed to identify individuals at risk for certain diseases.
List the basic components of every feedback control system.
Sensor
Integrating or control center
Effector mechanism
Feedback
Explain the mechanism of action of negative & positive control systems.
Negative feedback control system are inhibitory, while positive feedback systems are stimulatory & does not help the body maintain a stable condition????
Hormones
Specific chemical messengers.
The name used to describe the study of the body that consider groups of organs that have a common function.
Systemic anatomy.
Molecules
Combinations of atoms forming larger chemical aggregates.
The dorsal cavity contains the:
Brain & spinal cord.
The ventral body cavity contains the:
Thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities
The axial portion of the body consists of:
Head, neck, and torso.
Name the 2 major body cavities.
Ventral and Dorsal
The ventral cavity includes the:
thoracic or chest cavity & the abdominopelvic cavity.
The thoracic cavity includes:
A right & left pleural cavity & a midportion called the mediastinum.
The abdominopelvic cavity contains:
An upper portion, the abdominal cavity & a lower portion, the pelvic cavity.
The dorsal cavity includes;
The spinal and cranial cavities.
The body as a whole can be subdivided into two major portions or components, what are they? & what do they consist of?
Axial - head, neck, & torso or trunk.
Appendicular - the upper and lower extremities and their connections to the axial portion.
Name the Abdominal Regions?
1 Rt hypochondriac, 2 Epigastric 3 lft hypochondriac, 4 rt lumbar 5 umbilical 6 lft lumbar 7 rt iliac (inguinal) 8 hypogastric 9 lft iliac (inguinal) regions.
What are the principle organs & their primary functions of the Integumentary system.
Skin - Protection, temperature regulation, sensation.
What are the principle organs & their primary functions of the Skeletal system.
Bones, ligaments - Support, protection, movement, mineral & fat storage, blood production.
What are the principle organs & their primary functions of the Muscular system.
Skeletal muscles, tendons - Movement, posture, heat production.
What are the principle organs & their primary functions of the Nervous system?
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs - Control, regulation, & coordination of other systems, sensation, memory.
What are the principle organs & their primary functions of the Endocine system?
Pituitary gland, adrenals, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroids, and other glands - Control & regulation of other systems.
What are the principle organs & their primary functions of the Cardiovascular system?
Heart, arteries, veins, capillaries. - Exchange & transport of materials
What are the principle organs & their primary functions of the Lymphatic system?
Lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, spleen, thymus, tonsils - Immunity, fluid balance
What are the principle organs & their primary functions of the Respiratory system?
Lungs, bronchial tree, trachea, larynx, nasal cavity - Gas exchange, acid-base balance
What are the principle organs & their primary functions of the Digestive system?
Stomach, small & large intestines, esophagus, liver, mouth, pancreas - Breakdown & absorption of nutrients, elimination of waste
What are the principle organs & their primary functions of the Urinary system?
Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra - Excretion of waste, fluid & electrolyte balance, acid base balance
What are the principle organs & their primary functions of the Reproductive system?
Male testes, val deferens prostrate seminal vesicles penis. female ovaries fallopian tubes, uterus vagina breasts - reproduction, continuity of genetic info, nurturing of offspring
Ipsilateral
on the same side of the body
Contralateral
on the opposite side of body
Pathology
The study of disease.
Pathophysiology
The organized study of the underlying physiological processes associated with disease.
When referring to Disease terminology define signs.
are objective abnormalities that can be seen or measured by someone other than the patient.
When referring to Disease terminology define symptoms.
the subjective abnormalities that are felt only by the patient.
When referring to Disease terminology define syndrome.
is a collection of different signs & symptoms that occur together.
When referring to Disease terminology define acute.
When signs and symptoms appear suddenly, persist for a short time, and then disappear.
When referring to Disease terminology define chronic.
diseases that develop slowly and last for a long time ( perhaps for life)
When referring to Disease terminology define etiology.
The study of all the factors involved in causing a disease.
When referring to Disease terminology define idiopathic.
diseases with undetermined causes.
When referring to Disease terminology define pathogenesis.
the actual pattern of a disease's development.
When referring to Disease terminology define incubation.
When a cold virus establishes itself in the patient., Also known as latent.
When referring to Disease terminology define Epidemiology.
The study of the occurrence, distribution and transmission of diseases in human populations.
When referring to Disease terminology define epidemic.
A disease that is native to a local region.
When referring to Disease terminology define pandemics.
Are epidemics that affect large geographic regions, perhaps spreading worldwide.
Genetic mechanisms
Altered or mutated genes can cause abnormal proteins to be made.
Pathogenic organisms
Organisms or particles that damage the body in some way.
Prions
Proteins that convert normal proteins of the nervous system into abnormal proteins, thereby causing loss of nervous system function.
Viruses
Intracellular parasites that consist of a DNA or RNA core surrounded by a protein coat &, sometimes, a lipoprotein envelope.
Bacteria
Tiny, primitive cells that lack nuclei. They cause infection by parasitizing tissues or otherwise disrupting normal function.
Fungi
Simple organisms similar to plants but lack the chlorophyll pigments that allow plants to make their own food. bucuz thy cant make own food, fungi must parasitize other tissues, including those fo the human body.
Mechanisms of disease - Protozoa
Are protists, one-celled organisms larger than bacteria whose DNA is organized into a nucleus, Many types of protozoa parasitize human tissues.
Mechanisms of disease - Pathogenic animals.
Are large, multicellular organisms such as insects & worms, Such animals can parasitize heman tissues, bite or sting, or otherwise disrupt normal body function.
Mechanisms of disease - Tumors and Cancer
Abnormal tissue growths, or neoplasms, can cause various physiological disturbances.
Mechanisms of disease - Physical & chemical agents.
Agents such as toxic or destructive chemicals, extreme heat or cold, mechanical injury and radiation can each affect the normal homeostasis of the body.
Mechanisms of disease - Malnutrition
Insufficient or imbalanced intake of nutrients causes various diseases.
Mechanisms of disease - Autoimmunity
Some diseases result from the immune system attacking ones own body or from other mistakes or overreactions of the immune response, literally self-immunity
Mechanisms of disease - Inflamation
a normal mechanism that usually speeds recovery from an infection or injury but when this happens at inappropriate time or prolonged normal tissues may become damaged.
Mechanisms of disease - Degeneration
By means of many still unknown processes, tissues sometimes break apart or degenerate.
Mechanisms of disease - risk factors
Genetic factors, age, Lifestyle, stress, environmental, microorganism, preexisting conditions.