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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anatomical position
subject standing erect facing observer
head level, eyes facing forward
feet flat, directed forward
arms at sides, palms turned forward
prone position
body lying face down
supine position
body lying face up
head region
skull (encloses and protects the brain)
and
face (front portion of the head includes eyes, nose, mouth, forehead, cheeks, and chin)
neck region
supports the head and attaches to the trunk
trunk region
chest, abdomen and pelvis
upper limb
attaches to the trunk - consists of shulder, armpit,
arm (portion of the limb from the shoulder to the elbow)
forearm (portion of the limb from the elbow to the wrist)
wrist and hand
lower limb
attaches to the trunk -
consists of the buttock, thigh(portion of the limb from the buttock to the knee)
leg (portion of the limb from the knee to the ankle)
ankle and foot
groin
area on the front surface of the body marked by a crease on each side, where the trunk attached to the thigh
principal body regions
head
neck
trunk
upper limbs
lower limbs
directional terms
words that describe the position of one body part relative to another (usually grouped in pairs)
anterior
(ventral)
front
posterior
(dorsal)
back
superior
(cranial/cephalic)
upper
toward head
inferior
(caudal)
lower
away from head
medial
nearer to the midline
lateral
farther from the midline
intermediate
between two structures
ipsilateral
on the same side of the body
contralateral
on the opposite side of the body
proximal
nearer to the origination of a structure or where it attaches to the trunk
distal
farther from the origination of a structure or where it attaches to the trunk
superficial
toward or on the surface
deep
away from the surface
planes
imaginary flat surfaces that pass through body parts
section
one flat surface or cut along a plane
why is the plane important
understanding the plane of a section gives knowledge as to the anatomical relationship of one part of a section to another
sagittal plane

sagitt=arrow
vertical plane that divides into equal right & left sides
parasagittal plane

para=near
vertical plane that divides into unequal right & left sides
frontal or coronal plane

corona=crown
vertical plane that divides into anterior & posterior portions
transverse plane
(aka cross-sectional)
horizontal plane horizontal plane that divides into superior & inferior portions
oblique plane
passes through at an angle between the transverse (upper & lower) and either a sagittal or frontal plane
body cavities
spaces within the body that help protect, separate and support internal organs
cranial cavity
formed by the cranial bones-
contains the brain
vertebral (spinal) cavity
formed by the vertebral column-
contains the spinal column
meninges
three layers of protective tissue that line the cranial & vertebral cavities
thoracic cavity
formed by the ribs, muscles of the chest, sternum and thoracic vertebrae-
contains the pericardial cavity, 2 pleural cavities and the mediastinum
pericardial cavity

peri=around; cardial=heart
a fluid filled space within the thoracic cavity that contains the heart
pleural cavities

pleur=rib or side
each cavity surrounds a lung and contains a small amount of fluid
mediastinum

media=middle; stinum=partition
central part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs;
extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and the neck to the diaphragm-
contains all thoracic organs except the lungs; the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus and several large blood vessels
diaphragm
dome shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
abdominopelvic cavity
extends from the diaphragm to the groin, encircled by the abdominal wall and the bones & muscles of the pelvis-
it is divided into two portions
abdominal cavity

abdomin=belly
the superior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity-
contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gall bladder, small intestine and most of the large intestine
pelvic cavity

pelv=basin
inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine & internal organs of the reproductive system
viscera
the organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
serous membrane
a thin, slippery double layered membrane that covers the viscera and lines the walls of the thorax & abdomen
parietal layer
the layer of the serous membrane that lines the walls of the cavities
visceral layer
the layer of the serous membrane that covers and adheres to the viscera within the cavities
serous fluid
fluid between the parietal & visceral layers of serous membrane;
reduces friction
pleura
serous membrane of the pleural cavity
visceral pleura
clings to the surface of the lungs
parietal pleura
lines the chest walls and the superior portion of the diaphragm
pericardium
serous membrane of the pericardial cavity
visceral pericardium
covers the surface of the heart
parietal pericardium
lines the chest wall
peritoneum
serous membrane of the abdominal cavity
visceral peritoneum
covers the abdominal viscera
perietal peritoneum
lines the abdominal wall and the inferior surface of the diaphragm
retroperitontal organs
organs located between the parietal peritoneum and the posterior abdominal walls
abdominopelvic regions
a method of dividing this cavity into 9 regions using two horizontal lines & two vertical lines
4 lines dividing the abdominopelvic regions
subcostal
transtubercular
right & left midclavicular
abdominopelvic quadrants
a method of dividing this cavity into four regions using vertical & horizontal lines that pass through the umbilicus