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72 Cards in this Set

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Soft masses of fatty material inside the artery wall is called what?
Athersclerosis
What is the difference between Athersclerosis and Arteriosclerosis?
Arteriosclerosis decresases the elasticity of arteries which make the artery hard and unyeilding. This condition can cause arteries that can no longer handle the high pressure of blood flow to balloon out or burst. Athersclerosis is the formation of fatty lesions(plaque) inside the arteries that cause blood flow to be blocked causing several diseases.
Soft masses of fatty material inside the artery wall is called what?
Athersclerosis
What is the difference between Athersclerosis and Arteriosclerosis?
Arteriosclerosis decresases the elasticity of arteries. Athersclerosis is the formation of fatty lesions inside the arteries
3 choices- arteries, veins, capillaries. Which blood vessel is under the greatest pressure
Arteries
How do you get varicous veins? Why do they look like they do?
Varicous veins (superficial veins)are caused by leaky valves due to pressure on vessels(standing, pregnancy, obesity, heredity)that restrict return of blood to the heart. Blood pools in the lower limbs causing the valves to weaken- the veinous walls stretch/floppy. Can see the pools of blood superficially through the skin.
After ventricle contraction a small amount of blood remains in the heart. What purpose does this serve?
After ventricle contraction 50 ml. of blood remains allowing the capillary function to continue, keeps the system working otherwise it will dry up.
What is the order of heart structure?
Layers, pericardium
What things distinguish a vein from an artery?
Veins have thinner walls, valves to prevent backflow,and larger lumen then arteries. Veins carry blood carry de-oxygenated blood
Sympathetic vasomotor nerve fibers of the autonomic nervous system do what 2 things to smooth muscle in arteries?
Vasoconstriction- reduces the diameter in lumen as smooth muscle contracts.
Vasodilation- increases the diameter of the lumen as the smooth muscle relaxes.
What happens in systole?
Period when either the ventricles or the atrial are contracting; forcing blood out of its chambers. Systolic Pressure: is the pressure exerted by blood on the blood vessel walls during ventricular contractions.
What happens in diastole?
Period in the cardiac cycle when either the ventricles or atrium are relaxing which allow the heart's chambers to refill with blood. Diastolic Pressure: Arterial blood pressure reached during or as a result of diastole; lowest level of blood pressure in the cardiac cycle.
Name the blood vessels that carry oxygentated blood.
aorta,right and left pulmonary veins- systemic(body) arteries
Name the blood vessels that carry de-oxygenated blood.
superior and inferior vena cava, pulmonary artery out of heart into the lung all systemic veins.
Where does blood go in the pulmonary veins?
Oxygenated blood from the lungs is carried through the pulmonary veins back to the left side of the heart where it enters the left atrium.
In right ventricle systole what blood vessel will receive the blood?
Pulmonary trunk
What causes lub and dub heart sounds?
Heart sounds arise from turbulent blood flow during the closing of heart valves. Lub-AV valve closing. Dub- SL valve closing
Where will you find the sinoatrial node?
In the right atrial wall
What is P-Wave?
P wave results from movement of the depolarization wave from the SA node through the atria. Right after P wave begins atria contract.
Name the location and function of Atrioventricular Valves.
Atrioventricular Valves (AV) are located btwn the atria and ventricles. AV valve prevents backflow of blood into the atria when ventricles are contracting.
Name the location and function of Semi-Lunar Valves
SL Valves are located at the base of the aorta and the base of the ulmonary trunk. They prevent backflow into the ventricles when the ventricles are relaxing.
AV Valves are supported by ______ that help keep flaps from flowing into the atrium.
Chordae Tendinae anchor cusps of AV valve flaps to papillary muscles protruding from the ventricular walls.
Trace the flow of blood starting at the right atrium.
Pulmonary- de-oxygenated blood
R atrium> R AV valve> R ventricle> Pulmonary(SL)valve> Pulmonary trunk> Lungs> Pulmonary veins.
Trace the flow of blood starting at the left atrium.
Systemic- oxygenated blood
L atrium> L AV (mitral)valve> L ventricle> Aortic (SL) valve> aorta> body systemic vessels> inferior and superior vena cava> back to R atrium.
What are the layers of the heart?
Outer layer-epicardium
Middle layer-myocardium
Inner layer- endocardium
In right ventricle systole what blood vessel will receive the blood?
Pulmonary trunk
What causes lub and dub heart sounds?
Heart sounds arise from turbulent blood flow during the closing of heart valves. Lub-AV valve closing. Dub- SL valve closing
Where will you find the sinoatrial node?
In the right atrial wall
What is P-Wave?
P wave results from movement of the depolarization wave from the SA node through the atria. Right after P wave begins atria contract.
Name the location and function of Atrioventricular Valves.
Atrioventricular Valves (AV) are located btwn the atria and ventricles. AV valve prevents backflow of blood into the atria when ventricles are contracting.
Structure of the heart.
Located in the mediastinum> 2 layered sac> fibrous pericardium> serious pericardium> 4 chambers> r/l atria> r/l ventricles> 2 septums> interatrial/interventricle septums> 4 valves r/l atrioventicular(AV) valves r mitral(bicuspid)l tricuspid seimilunar (SL) valves 3 layered heart wall> epicardium, myocardium, endocardium> blood vessels/veins.
What is plasma itself carrying mostly?
Water 90%, remaining 10% are solutes (Plasma proteins). Largest plasma proteins are: Albumin 60%, Globulins alpha, beta 36%, Gamma (no % listed) and Fibrinogen 4%.
What proteins react together to form the fibrin of the actual clot?
Prothrombin,(converted to) thrombin, and fibrinogen.
Process as follows:
Prothromin activator converts prothrombin(plasma protein) into thrombin(enzyme)thrombin catalyzes the joining of fibrinogen molecules that are present in plasma and a fibrin mesh is the result.
What happens when a vessel becomes damaged?
Platelets(cytoplasmic fragments or large cells)help form a temporary plug that helps seal the break.
Describe the Vascular Spasm reponse in homostasis.
Vascular spasm: Strong constriction of the damaged blood vessel.(reduces blood loss & allows time for platelet plug formation)
Describe the Platelet Plug Formation response in homostasis.
Underlying collagen fibers are exposed from injury> platelets adhere> undergo changes(swell, form spiked processes, and become sticky.
Once attached platelets are activated and granules break down releasing chemicals>more platelets are attracted to the injury and release their chemicals as well. Positive feedback system initiated.
Describe the blood clotting phase of homostasis
A complex substance called Prothromin activator is formed. The prothromin activator converts prothrombin(plasma protein) into thrombin(active enzyme)thrombin catalyzes the joining of fibrinogen molecules that are present in plasma and a fibrin mesh is the result. Clot
What gland is represented in a dysfunction of basal metabolic rate?
Thyroid
What is the main symptom of diabetes mellitus?
Polydipsia- Excessive thirst.
Caused by dehydration.
What 2 hormones do the adrenal medulla secrete?
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
What do alpha cells of the pancreas secrete?
What do beta cells of the pancreas secrete?
What do delta cells of the pancreas secrete?
Glucagon(Islets of Langerhan)Hyperglycemic
Insulin- Hypoglycemic
Somatostatin- Stimulates cartilage and collagen
If you have iodine deficiency goiter which hormone would be increased?
TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone. This hormone binds to the colloid matrial in follicles.
What hormones does the adrenal cortex secrete?
Corticosteroids-
Mineralocortoicoids- aldosterone: regulates potassium and sodium
Glucocorticoids-
Cortisol: movilizes fats for energy metabolism
Gonadocorticoids-
Androgens:converted to testosterone or estrogens(after release). Insignificant effect in males. Females source of estrogen after menopause
Which hormones stimulates testosterone secretion?
Luteinizing hormone(LH)in the anterior pituitary. Gonadocorticoids secreted by the adrenal cortex.
Where is ADH and oxytocin stored?
Why are they stored in the first place?
Stored in the posterior pituitary.
If you have a hormone deficiency of secretion in a young child what will happen?
Lack of growth hormone will result in decrease in growth and sexual maturity.
Calcium levels in the blood are increased by what?
Level of parathyroid in blood - low blood calcium will stimulate the parathyroid gland. Skeleton to release calcium. instine increase calcium absorption from food, helps promote Vit D. kidneys increase calcium reabsorption.
In terms of kidney activities what buffer systems are involved?
How many # 1-7 are involved?
Acid and bicarbonate buffer
Kidneys regulating hydrogen Hydrochloric acid-chloride group
Ammonia
Phosphate
Bicarbonate-2 carbons
What kind of epithelial cells are involoved in the glomerulus network of capillaries found in the kidney?
Single Squamos Epithelial Cells
Flat single layered cells
How does urine go through the ureter?
Peristaltic Waves-Incomining urine distends the ureter and stimulates its muscularis to contract, propelling urin into the bladder. (Urine does not reach the bladder through gravity alone). Peristaltic waves are adjusted to the rate of urine formation.
What is the basic functional unit in the kidney?
Nephrons- def: Tiny blood processing units which carry out the processes that form urine.
What increases filtration in the glomerulus?
If Glomerular hydrostatic pressure(BP)goes up will have___ filtration if it goes___ b/c of low BP you will have less filtration.
Glomerulus filtration increase would need to have an increased the rate of blood through the renal system- must have increased cardic output.
high, low
What will happen if you treat a patient with an antagonist of Aldosterone?
Blood volume,blood pressure go down. Urine will go up. Excretes sodium so your water will go out.
What tubules in the kidney reabsorb most of the water?
Proximal Tubules
What is the formation of gallstones called?
Choledocholithiasis
What kind of organ is the spleen?
def: Largest Lymphoid organ; Part of the immune system.
a. provides for lymphocyte proliferation
b. immune, surveilliance response
c. blood cleansing functions
What protein splitting enzymes come from the pancreas?
Pepsin: def- enzyme capable of digesting proteins in an acid pH.
What protein splitting enzymes come from the pancreas?
a.pancreatic amylase: breakdown starch into glucose molocules
b.pancreatic lipase:uses hydrolosis to break apart fat molecules
nucleases:
NOTE ABOVE 3 SECRETED IN ACTIVE FORM
c.trypsinogin,precursor to trypsin which breaks down proteins-
d.chymotrypsinogen precursor to chymotrypsin which is a proteolytic enzyme-
Why are protein splitting enzymes secreted in an inactive form?
How are they activated?
Enzymes are secreted in an in-active state (like pepsinogen) and others because once enzyme(pepsin) is activated it becomes very acidic and would eat the stomach wall.
Enzymes are activated by hydrochloric acid produced by protons in the stomach
How far in your digestive tract does peristalsis move the food? (From what location to what location)?
Mouth to the anus
Salivary amylaze initiates the digestion of what?
Complex Carbohydrates- Starch
In What form are enzymes stored?
In-active state. Hydrochloric acid HCL in the stomach activate enzymes
What is the main function of the digestive system?
Takes in food, breaks it down into nutrient molecules, absorbs these molecules into the bloodstream, and then rids the body of the indigestible remains.
The terminal portion of the small intestine is called the?
Ilieum
What does bile do?
It emulsifies fat
Does the GI tract have both para-sympathetic or sympathetic nerves that innovate it?
1 or both?
Sympathetic speeds up
Parasympathetic slows it down
BOTH
If you have an obstruction of common bile duct(gallstones)what part of digestive system would be affected by that?
Disruption of bile production which will affect the digestion of fats
What is the main function of the gallbladder? 2 specific jobs.
Store and concentrate(or make stronger)bile
Where do the most of the enzymes come form that aid in protein digestion?
The pancreas
How do the kidneys deal with alkalosis?
bicarbonate ions and hydrogen ions either elevate between alkalosis or acidosis
What are the 2 different ways that carbon dioxide is carried?
Transported as bicarbonate ions in plasma-bound to hemoglobin carbaminohemoglobin
Does the kidney medulla synthesize glucose? (Gloconeogenesis)
No the kidney cortex and the liver synthesize glucose