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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the science of body structures and the relationships among structures
the science of body functions - how the body parts work
groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function
a structure composed of two or more different kinds of tissues with a specific function and usually a recognizable shape
The 11 Systems of the Human Body
Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lumphatic System and Immunity, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, and Reproductive
Integumentary System
Components: Skin, and structures derived from it, such as hair, nails, sweat glands, and oil glands.
Functions: Protects the body; helps regulate body temperature; eliminates some wastes; helps make vitamin D; and detects sensations such as touch, pain, warmth, and cold.
Skeletal System
Components: Bones and joints of the body and their associated cartilages.
Functions: Supports and protects the body; provudes a surface area for muscle attachments; aids body movements; houses cells that produce blood cells; stores minerals and lipids (fats).
Muscular System
Components: Muscles composed of skeletal muscle tissue, so-named because it is usually attached to bones.
Functions: Produces body movements, such as walking; stabilized body position (posture); generates heat.
Nervous System
Components: Brain, spinal cord, nerves,and special sense organs, such as the eye and ear.
Functions: Generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities; detects changes in the body's internal and external environment, interprets the changes, and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretions.
Endocrine System
Components: Hormone-producing glands (pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, and testes) and hormone-producing cells in several other organs.
Functions: Regulates body activities by releasing hormones, which are chemical messengers transported in blood from an endocrine gland to a target organ.
Cardiovascular System
Components: Blood, heart, and blood vessels.
Functions: Heart pumps blood through blood vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells and helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature, and water content of body fluids; blood components help defend against disease and mend damaged blood vessels.
Lymphatic System and Immunity
Components: Lymphatic fluid and vessels; also includes spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and tonsils.
Functions: Returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; includes structures where lymphocytes that protect against disease-causing organisms mature and proliferate.
Respiratory System
Components: Lungs and air passageways such as the pharyx (throat), larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), and bronchial tubes leading into and out of them.
Functions: Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids; air flowing out of lungs through vocal cords produces sounds.
Digestive System
Components: Organs of gastrointestinal tract, a long tube that includes the mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and anus; also includes accessory organs that assist in digestive processes, such as the salivary gland, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Functions: Achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food; absorbs nutrients; eliminates solid wastes.
Urinary System
Components: Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Functions: Produces, stores, and eliminates urine; eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood; helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids; maintains body's mineral balance; helps regulate production of red blood cells.
Reproductive Systems
Components: Gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) and associated organs (uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina in females and epididymus, ductus deferens, and penis in males).
Functions: Gonads produce gametes (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism; gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store gametes.
the sum of all the chemical processses that occur in the body
breaking down of complex chemical substances into simpler ones
building up of complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler ones
the body's ability to detect and respond to changes in its internal or external environment
the process in which unspecialized cells become specialized cells
stem cells
precursor cells that can divide and give rise to cells that undergo differentiation (unspecialized cells in red bone marrow)
the maintenance of relatively stable conditions in the body's internal environment
interstitial fluid
extracellular fluid that fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissues
blood plasma
extracellular fluid with blood vessels
extracellular fluid within lymphatic vessels
cerebrospinal fluid
extracellular fluid in and around the brain and spinal cord
synovial fluid
extracellular fluid in joints
a body structure that monitors and changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control center.
control center
A control center in the body sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained, evaluates the input it receives from receptors, and generates output commands when they are needed. Output is in the form of nerve impulses or chemical signals.
an effector
a body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response or an effect that changes the controlled condition.
negative feedback system
reverses a change in a controlled condition (lowering of blood pressure in response to a stimulus causing an increase in blood pressure)
positive feedback system
operates similarly to a negative feedback system except that the response strengthens or reinforces the change in one of the body's controleed condition rather than reverse it. (contractions causing cervix to stretch or blood clotting)
`any abnormality of structure and/or function
term for an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms
subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer
objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure
anatomical position
In the anatomical position, the subject stands erect facing the observer, with the head level and the eyes facing forward. The feet are flat on the floor and directed forward, and the arms are at the sides with the palms turned forward.
an anatomical position where the body is upright but reclining and face down
an anatomical position where the body is upright but reclining and face up
consists of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis
toward the head, or the upper part of a structure
away from the head, or the lower part of a structure
nearer to or at the front of the body
nearer to or at the back of the body
nearer to the midline or midsagittal plane
farther from the midline or midsagittal plane
between two structures
on the same side of the body as another structure
on the opposite side of the body from another structure
nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the point of origination or the beginning
farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the point of origination or the beginning
cranial cavity
formed by the cranial bones and contains the brain
vertebral (spinal) cavity
formed by the bones of the vertebral column (backbone) and contains the spinal cord
three layers of protective tissue that line the cranial cavity and the vertebral cavity
thoracic cavity
(chest cavity) encircled by the ribs, the muscles of the chest, the sternum, and the thoracic portion of the vertebral column
pericardial cavity
within the thoracic cavity; a fluid filled space that surround the heart
pleural cavities
within the thoracic cavity; each surrounds one lung and contains a small amount of fluid
central portion of the thoracic cavity that is between the lungs and extends from the sternum to the vertebral column, and from the neck to the diaphram; contains all the thoracic viscera except the lungs themselves
a dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
abdominopelvic cavity
it extends from the diaphram to the groin and is encircled by the abdominal wall and the bones and muscles of the pelvis; it is divided into two portions (superior-abdominal cavity-and inferior-pelvic cavity)
abdominal cavity
the superior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity; contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine
pelvic cavity
the inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity; contains the urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, and internal organs of the reproductive system
what organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are called
serous membranes
thin, slippery double-layered membranes that cover the viscera within the thoracic and abdominal cavities and line the walls of the thorax and abdomen; the parts are (1) the parietal layer (which lines the walls of the cavities) and (2) the visceral layer (which covers and adheres to the organs within the cavities); they secrete serous fluids into the space between the two layers
the serous membrane of the pleural cavities (the visceral pleura clings to the surface of the lungs, and the parietal pleura lines the chest wall
the serous membrane of the pericardial cavity (the visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart, and the anterior portion of the perietal pericardium lines the chest wall)
the serous membrane of the abdominal cavity (the visceral peritoneum covers the abdominal viscera, and the pariteal peritoneum lines the abdominal wall)
abdominal organs located behind the perietal peritoneum (between it and the posterior abdominal wall); like the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum of the small intestine, ascending and descending colons of the large intestine, and portions of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava