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149 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
An Ion is a:
a) charged atom
b) charged molecule
c) all
d) none
c) all of the above
A substance can exit a cell by any of the following means except:
a) simple diffusion
b) exocytosis
c) endocytosis
d) active transport
d) endocytosis
Matter made up of lipids include:
a) neutral fats adn phospholipids
b) cholesterol
c) steroids
d) all
e) two
d) all of the above
A solurtion contains more OH- molecules than H+ ions. This solution is said to be:
a) acidic
b) basic
c) neutral
b) basic
Which of the following are not easily permitted throught he plasma membrane:
a) steroids
b) amino acids
c) oxygen
d) a and c
e) b and c
b) amino acids
The clear structure-less watery gel in a cell is its:
a) protoplasm
b) cytoplasm
c) cytosol
d) nucleoplasm
e) ectoplasm
c) cytosol
Adenosine trip-phosphate (ATP):
a) is a high energy molecule
b) is a small nucleotide
c) is a nucleic acid
d) a and b
e) all
d) a and b
Of the three types of cartilage, this one is teh most flexible:
a) elastic
b) fibro
c) hyaline
d) reticular
e) none
a) elastic
A catalyst:
a) can be a protein called an enzyme
b) increases the rate of a chemical reaction
c) is not changed or altered by the reaction process
d) b and c
e) all
e) all
In an example of anabolism in a human cell:
a) a sugar monomer is converted to a polymer called glycogen
b) glucose is broken down to pyruvate
c) ATP is hydrolysed
d) b and c
e) all
a) a sugar monomer is converted to a polymer called glycogen
Which of the following are examples of polar covalent bonds?
a) CO2
b) H2O
c) OH
d) O2
e) two
e) two
Translation:
a) is part of protein synthesis
b) requires amino acids
c) occurs in the nucleus
d) a and b
e) a and c
d) a and b
In physiological systems teh term "polar" can refer to:
a) a molecule with a positive and a negeative charge
b) a cell that has one surface exposed and one surface tied to a basement membrane
c) ice caps at the north and south pole
d) a and b
e) all
d) a and b
The passive movement of a solute through a membrane protein down its concentration gradient is an example of:
a) osmosis
b) simple diffusion
c) facilitated diffusion
d) active transport
e) two
c) facilitated diffustion
Most membrane functions are carried out by:
a) phospholipids
b) proteins
c) cholesterol
d) nucleic acids
e) all
b) proteins
The term transcytosis is best described as:
a) movement of substance into a cell by endocytosis
b) movement of vessicles through a cell
c) merging of vesicle bound substances with lysosomes within the cell
d) b and c
e) none
b) movement of vesicles through a cell
Which of the following can speed up a chemical reaction in a water solvent?
a) heat the solution
b) add a catalyst
c) add more of the product
d) a and b
e) all
d) a and b
Which of the following may be used to describe the first law of thermodynamics?
a) energy can be transferred but can never be created or destroyed
b) to create a new structure from atoms, energy is required
c) kinetic energy from running water turning a turbine may be converted into electrical energy
d) a and b
e) a and c
e) a and c
In a hydrolysis reaction:
a) a water molecule is created by breaking up a polymer into monomers
b) a water molecule is broken to create a polymer from monomers
c) a water molecule is broken to break a polymer into monomers
d) a water molecule is created by linking two monomers into a polymer
e) none
c) a water molecule is broken to break a polymer into monomers
Which of the following is not true? Metabolic pathways:
a) occur in stepwise series of chemical reactions
b) always produce energy in the form of ATP
c) are speeded up by enzyme activity
d) may degrade or assemble molecules
e) all
b) always produce energy in the form of ATP
How is oxygen used b living organisms?
a) it controls the amount of heat produced
b) it is a source of energy
c) it is used to release energy stored in food (i.e. chemical bonds)
d) it is part of water and is necessary to keept eh organism hydrated
e) two
c) it is used to release energy stored in food (i.e. chemical bonds)
Endocytosis is a process:
a) that moves substances outside of a cell
b) that moves substances inside a cell
c) that requires a vesicle with a phospholipid membrane
d) a and b
e) b and c
e) b and c
Types of tissue inclue:
a) skin
b) brain
c) connective
d) liver
e) all
c) connective
Osmotic pressure is highest in which of the following cells (solutions)?
a) one that contains a 1 molar solution of NaCl
b) one that contains a 100millimolar soution of NaCl
c) one that contains 100% pure water
d) one that contains 100% pure NaCl crystals
a) one that contains a 1 molar solution of NaCl
Which of the following organelles is responsible for protein assembly into a primary conformation?
a) ribosome
b) golgi apparatus
c) mitochondria
d) a and c
e) none
a) ribosome
Some types of membrane proteins include:
a) steroids and cholesterol
b) channels, pumps, and receptors
c) amino acids
d) all
e) a and b
b) channels, pumps, and receptors
A physiological tissue is best described as:
a) a group of cells called an organ
b) a group of cells performing a specific function
c) a soft paper substance used to blow your nose
d) two
e) none
b) a group of cells performing a specific function
The term "matrix" describes:
a) a secretion produced by a fibroblast
b) a secretion composed of a ground substance and protein fibers
c) a secretion found in connective tissues
d) all
e) two
d) all
Which of the following are connective tissues:
a) bone
b) blood
c) muscle
d) epithelium
e) a and b
e) a and b
The energy for protein synthesis comes from:
a) mitochondria
b) hydrolysis of ATP
c) sunshine
d) deydration of synthesis of ATP
e) none
b) hydrolysis of ATP
Epithelial tissues are tightly bound together by structures called:
a) knitosomes
b) tight junctions and desmosomes
c) cohesive water molecules
d) a and b
e) b and c
b) tight junctions and desmosomes
Which of the following are freely permeable thruogh a phospholipid membrane?
a) gasses and steroids
b) water and glucose
c) amino acids and ions
d) polar molecules
e) c and d
a) gasses and steroids
Cells are responsible for which of the following:
a) synthesis of ATP to insure their own survival
b) contributions to the whole organism to insure survival
c) breakdown of macromolecules for raw materials
d) a and b
e) all
e) all
Which of the following are not characteristics of epithelial tissues?
a) high mitotic rate
b) tightly attached to one another
c) they have a waterproof matrix
d) one surface is exposed, the other is tied to a basement membrane
e) all
c) they have a waterproof matrix
The tertiary conformation of a protein can be described as:
a) 3 dimensional
b) a helix
c) the sequence of amino acids
d) more than one polypeptide chian
e) none
a) 3 dimensional
If H+ concentration inside a cell increases from normal,
a) the cell would become acidic
b) the pH of the cell would decrease
c) the cell would become basic
d) the cell woul dperform normally
e) a and b
e) a and b
Melanocytes:
a) are secratory cells
b) produce a protein called melanin
c) are activated by ultra-violet light
d) all
e) some
d) all
Weeping lubrication is a term that describes:
a) circulation of the synovial fluid in a joint capsule
b) production of tears fromt eh tear glands
c) flow of sweat over an epithelium
d) all
e) none
a) circulation of the synovial fluid in a joint capsule
The functional unit of bone is called the:
a) chondrocyte
b) osteocyte
c) osteon
d) fibrocyte
e) none
c) osteon
The medulary cavity contains:
a) red marrow
b) yellow marrow
c) spongy bone
d) a and c
e) b and c
b) yellow marrow
Some functions of bone include:
a) mineral storage
b) lipid storage
c) carbohydrate storage
d) two
e) all
d) two
Which of the following cells aid in body immunity?
a) fibroblast
b) chondrocyte
c) macrophage
d) osteoblast
e) b and c
c) macrophage
The skin can maintian or release heat by:
a) changing the body's temperature set point
b) controlled blood flow through the subcutaneous layer
c) growing thicker layer of epidermis
d) none
b) controlled blood flow through the subcutaneous layer
A mature bone matrix producing cell is called:
a) chondrocyte
b) osteoblast
c) osteocyte
d) osteoclast
e) none
c) osteocyte
The salts in bone matrix are primarily ___ and are called ___.
a) potassium salts; ions
b) calcium salts; hydroxyapatite
c) sodium salts; hydroxyapatite
d) calcium salts; sodium hypochlorite
e) none
b) calcium salts; hydroxyapatite
Sebum is a greasy secretion that functions to:
a) waterproof the epidermis
b) coat a hair to keep it soft and pliable
c) make the skin smell good
d) a and b
e) b and c
d) a and b
A thick, slick substance that lubricates these joints is called:
a) vaseline
b) synovial fluid
c) salive
d) none
b) synovial fluid
The class of organic compounds that includes collagen and elastin is:
a) carbohydrates
b) lipids
c) proteins
d) nucleic acids
e) none
c) proteins
Which of the following statements is true?
a) long bones ossify by replacing cartilage with bone
b) skull bones develop between two connective tissue membranes
c) ossification occurs in all types of osteogenesis
d) a and b
e) all
e) all
A membrane is a ___ composed of ____.
a) organ; at least two types of primary tissue
b) barrier tissue; muscle and nerve tissue
c) organ; epithelium
d) a and c
e) all
a) organ; at least two types of primary tissue
The term "ganglia" describes:
a) a collection of neuron somas int eh CNS
b) a collection of neuron somas in the PNS
c) a person with abnormally long arms and legs
d) none
b) a collection of neuron somas in the PNS
The perietal peritoneum is a ___ membrane located ont eh ___of the ___cavity.
a) cutaneous; walls; thoracic
b) serous; organs; abdominal
c) serous; organs; thoracic
d) mucous; organs; abdominal
e) none
e) none
An afferent neuron:
a) leads away from the CNS
b) leads towards the CNS
c) is a sensory neuron
d) a and b
e) b and c
e) b and c
The protein produced by cutaneous epidermal cells is called:
a) fibrogen
b) keratin
c) collagen
d) all
e) some
b) keratin
Three types of receptors are:
a) chemo, neuro, and psycho
b) chemo, mechano, and thermo
c) electromagnetic, chemo, and drano
d) two
e) none
b) chemo, mechano, and thermo
the cells of this tissue are designed to produce movement:
a) epithelial
b) muscle
c) connective
d) nervous
e) two
b) muscle
When temperatures drop below normal:
a) blood vessels to the dermis vasodilate
b) blood vessels to the dermis vasoconstrict
c) sweat glands become active
d) a and c
e) b and c
b) blood vessels to the dermis vasoconstrict
A neuron is composed of the following parts:
a) soma
b) axon
c) dendrite
d) all
e) some
d) all
If Ca++ levels in the blood drop below normal:
a) the parathyroid gland secretes a hormone that targets osteoblasts and the kidney
b) the thyroid gland secretes a hormone that targets osteoclasts and digestive absorbtion
c) bone tissue is resorbed or recycled
d) a and c
e) b and c
d) a and c
Neuroglial cells:
a) act like connective tissue in the brain and spinal cord
b) transmit nerve impulses called action potentials
c) contain neurotransmittors
d) all
e) b and c
a) act like connective tissue in the brain and spinal cord
Ohm's Law is described by which of the following:
a) I=V/R
b) Voltage=CurrentxResistance
c) Flow of Ions=Potential/Membrane Permeability
d) a and c
e) all
e) all
A keloid scar is a connective tissue repair to a skin incision or wound that is:
a) composed of tightly coiled epithelial cells
b) virtually impoosible for the body to break down and recycle
c) made up entirely fo phospholipids
d) two
e) none
b) virtually impoosible for the body to break down and recycle
Sweat glands:
a) are modified epithelial cells
b) are exocrine
c) are innervated (connected to) by motor neurons
d) two
e) all
e) all
The ___ are the first cells to invade the site of primary ossification and are followed by:
a) osteoblasts; osteocytes
b) chondrocytes; osteoclasts
c) osteoclasts; osteoblasts
d) osteocytes; chondrocytes
e) none
b) chondrocytes; osteoclasts
This type of protein channel opens when a neurotransmitter or hormone binds to it:
a) chemical gate
b) voltage gate
c) lead channel
d) pore
e) none
a) chemical gate
These are epidermal in origin:
a) finger nails
b) hair
c) fibroblasts
d) a and b
e) all
d) a and b
Why are more potassium ions found on the inside of neurons?
a) they flow intot eh cell through leak channels
b) ther are pumped in due to a protein that utilizes ATP as an energy source
c) they are attracted to the many negatively charged proteins in the cell
d) a and b
e) b and c
b) ther are pumped in due to a protein that utilizes ATP as an energy source
Any deviation that allows the flow of positive ions (K+) out of a neuron will:
a) depolarize the cell
b) hyperpolarize the cell
c) make the cell more negative on the inside
d) a and b
e) b and c
e) b and c
If Ca++ levels in the blood drop for any reason, ___ will be secreted from the ___ to target ___.
a) calcitonin; throid gland; decreased osetocyte activity
b) parathyroid hormone; parathyroid gland; increased osteoclast activity and the kidney
c) parathyroid hormone; thyroid gland; decreased osteoclast activity and digestive absorbtion
d) calcitriol; skin; decreased osteoclast activity
e) two
b) parathyroid hormone; parathyroid gland; increased osteoclast activity and the kidney
Scratch your arm lightly and the site of the scratch will turn red. What cells are responsible and why is it red?
a) macrophages; irritation
b) fibroblasts; vasodilation
c) melanocytes; increased pigment
d) mast cells; vasodilation
e) none
d) mast cells; vasodilation
The cell that resorbs bone is the ___ and it dissolves the ground substance by ___.
a) osteoclast; pumping H+ ions and Cl- ions through itself and onto the bone matrix
b) osteoblast; secreting acid phophitase onto the bone matrix
c) osteocyte; secreting calcitonin
d) osteoclast; melting the matrix with heat produced from metabolism
e) chondrocyte; calcitriol
a) osteoclast; pumping H+ ions and Cl- ions through itself and onto the bone matrix
When a long bone is broken, a sof callus if formed when this tissue fills in the break.
a) hyaline
b) elastic
c) fibro
d) bone
e) none
c) fibro
Some functions of bone include:
a) mineral storage
b) lipid storage
c) carbohydrate storage
d) two
e) all
d) two
Summation is a term used to describe:
a) the ability of multiple EPSPs to add together
b) decay fo the graded potential
c) multiple action potentials
d) release of neurotransmittor
e) none
a) the ability of multiple EPSPs to add together
All of the cells of this tissue move:
a) has a somatic division
b) has a sympathetic and parasympathetic division
c) is part of the central nervous system
d) all
e) b and c
e) b and c
The refractory period:
a) limits the rate a neuron can initiate an action potential
b) prevents the action potential from traveling in a retrograde direction (towards the soma)
c) is due to the inactive state (state 3) of the voltage gates
d) some
e) all
e) all
Many homeostatic balances are regulated by the hypothalamus. Which of the following seem reasonable candidates for control?
a) temperature regulation
b) thirst and hunger
c) anger
d) a and b
e) all
d) a and b
The vasomotor center is in the ___ and controls ___.
a) hypothalamus; cardiac muscle
b) medulla; smooth muscle surrounding blood vessels
c) pons; skeletal muscle
d) medulla; breathing
e) diencephalon; vasoconstrication
b) medulla; smooth muscle surrounding blood vessels
The sympathetic division of the nervous system:
a) has only motor pathways
b) pre the body for rest and digestion
c) prepares the body for fight or flight
d) a and c
e) b and c
d) a and c
Sensory information from the muscles would travel through which of the following tracts?
a) Cortico-spinal
b) Spino-cerebellar
c) Spino-thalamic
d) Fasiculus
e) none
b) Spino-cerebellar
The schwann cell and the oligodendrocyte produce a substance calld:
a) melanin
b) myelin
c) keratin
d) endoneurium
b) myelin
A pre-synaptic neuron can produce which of the following in a post-synaptic neuron?
a) an EPSP
b) an IPSP
c) a graded potential
d) all
e) some
d) all
Which of the following tracts are descending (motor)?
a) spinothalamic
b) fasiculus
c) corticospinal
d) b and c
e) a and c
c) corticospinal
Which of the following describe functions of the cerebrum?
a) coordination
b) reasoning and memory
c) personality and language
d) a and c
e) b and c
e) b and c
If a neurotransmittor binds to and opens a potassium gate:
a) the gate must eb a voltage gate
b) the result is depolarization of the pre-synaptic cell
c) the result is an EPSP
d) the result is an IPSP
e) two
d) the result is an IPSP
A neurotransmittor such as Ach (acetylcholine):
a) is released by all autonomic post-ganglionic (synaptic) neurons
b) is a substance manufactured in the soma
c) is released by sympathetic pre-ganglionic (synaptic) neurons
d) a and b
e) b and c
e) b and c
Saltatory conduction is a term that describes:
a) propagation of an action potential down an unmyelinated axon
b) the action potential as it "jumps" between myelin nodes
c) too much sodium in the neuron
d) too much NaCl (salt) in teh synapse
e) a and b
b) the action potential as it "jumps" between myelin nodes
A graded (local) potential results when these channels (gates) open:
a) voltage gates
b) chemical gates
c) leak channels
d) all
e) none
b) chemical gates
Which of the following are neuronal pathways?
a) dendrites
b) tracts
c) nerves
d) all
e) b and c
d) all
The resting membran potential of a neuron is teh result of:
a) different permeabilities of K+ and Na+ thorugh respective leak channels and the Na+/K+ pumps
b) negative charges associated with intercellular proteins and extracellular Cl-
c) positive extracellular charges
d) all
e) none
a) different permeabilities of K+ and Na+ thorugh respective leak channels and the Na+/K+ pumps
The three coverings of the brain and spinal cord:
a) are all called meninges
b) are the dura, arachnoid, and pia mater
c) glial cells, connective tissue and bone
d) a and b
e) b and c
d) a and b
In the equation I=V/R as it applies to a neuron:
a) V=potential across a bi-lipid membrane
b) R=membrane permeability
c) I=Flow of current
d)all
e) a and c
d)all
The sodium voltage gate:
a) opens when a neurotransmittor binds to it
b) has three different states of actiivty/inactivity
c) starts the action potential
d) a and b
e) b and c
e) b and c
Depolarization of the synaptic end plate (knob):
a) opens Ca++ chemical gates ont eh presynaptic membrane
b) opens Na+ voltage gates on the postsynaptic membrane
c) opens Ca++ voltage gates on the presynaptic membrane
d) opens K+ voltage gates on teh postsynaptic membrane
e) none
c) opens Ca++ voltage gates on the presynaptic membrane
Propagation or conduction of an action potential is accomplished by:
a) opening of chemical gates along the length of an axon
b) opneing of voltage gates along the length of an axon
c) release of a neurotransmittor into a synaptic cleft
d) a and b
e) b and c
b) opneing of voltage gates along the length of an axon
Which of the following nuclei are located int eh diencephalon?
a) amygdyla
b) hippocampus
c) basal nuclei
d) a and b
e) none
e) none
Which of the following compounds stimulates sodium voltage gates?
a) nicotine
b) caffeine
c) carbohydrates
d) all
e) none
a) nicotine
A synapse:
a) is a space between two neurons
b) connects two neurons together by means of a chemical transmittor
c) is any connection between a neuron and another cell
d) a and b
e) all
d) a and b
Which of the following traits are common to both graded and action potentials?
a) both decay over distance
b) both are "all or none"
c) both are cause when voltage gates are opened
d) two
e) none
e) none
Which of the foloowing axons has the fastest condustion velocity?
a)a small diameter, unmyelinated axon
b) a large diameter, unmyelinated axon
c) a small diameter, myelinated axon
d) a large diamtere, myelinated axon
e) c and d
d) a large diamtere, myelinated axon
Specialized ependymal cells that produce cerebro-spinal fluid are called:
a) the choroid plexus
b) oligodendrocytes
c) glial cells
d) astrocytes
e) none
a) the choroid plexus
A post-synaptic neuron is receiving local potentials but is no reaching threshold. What needs to happen for this cell to reach threshold?
a) spacial summation
b) temporal summation
c) summation of additional IPSPs
d) a and b
e) all
d) a and b
If the Na-K pump were to be poisoned or destroyed,
a) the potential difference between teh intra and extra-cellular space would return to zero volts
b) chemical gates could not be triggered to open
c) net ion movement would be zero
d) a and c
e) all
d) a and c
The occipital lobe of the brain contains cells responsible for:
a) vision
b) hearing
c) motor control
d) memory
e) none
a) vision
A reflex:
a) is a rapid, automativ response to a stimulus
b) can be composed of a single sensory and and a single motor neuron
c) always utilizes autonomic pathways
d) a and b
e) all
d) a and b
The longevity of any neurotransmittor is controlled by:
a) how quickly it is released fromt eh presynaptic cell
b) an enzyme on the postsynaptic membrane that breaks it down on contact
c) heat produced by the action potential
d) b and c
e) none
b) an enzyme on the postsynaptic membrane that breaks it down on contact
The Ca++ foudn in high concentration outside the neuron is due to:
a) pumps in the neuron using active transport
b) high Ca++ concentration in the blood
c) osteoblasts dissolving bone
d) a and c
e) b and c
b) high Ca++ concentration in the blood
Autonomic functions related to sleep and digestion are likely carried out by the:
a) sympathetic division of the nervous system
b) para-sympathetic division of the nervous system
c) somatic division of the nervous system
d) sensory division of the nervous system
b) para-sympathetic division of the nervous system
The brain contains on the order of ___ neurons.
a) 10^5
b) 10^8
c) 10^10
d) 10^12
e) 10^14
d) 10^12
What happens to a muscle if its nerve supply is destroyed?
a) all the fibers hypertrophy
b) all the fibers atrophy
c) some hypertrophy/some atrophy
d) it dies
e) some
b) all the fibers atrophy
The "labeled line" is a term which describes:
a) a specific motor pathway from the CNS
b) a specific sensory pathway from a receptor to the sensory cortex
c) the instructions on a topographical map of the Grand Canyon
d) a and b
e) b and c
b) a specific sensory pathway from a receptor to the sensory cortex
Skeletal muscle force production is most closely related to:
a) quantitiy of ATP
b) muscle fiber cross-sectional area
c) storage of Ca++
d) the myosin isoform of the fiber
e)none
b) muscle fiber cross-sectional area
When a muscle fiber depolarizes:
a) Na+ rushes into the fiber
b) K+ rushes out of the fiber
c) Ca++ is released form teh sarcoplasmic reticulum
d) all
e) none
d) all
Possible functions of muscle include:
a) movement
b) guarding of openings of urinary and digestive tracts
c) heat production
d) some
e) all
e) all
The maximum force an intact whole muscle (muscle and nerve) can produce will be:
a) at the optimum muscle length (Lo) and a frequency of activation in excess of 200 Hz
b) due solely to the cross-sectional area of its muscle fibers
c) at Lo and a frequency of activation of 10 Hz
d) a and b
e) b and c
a) at the optimum muscle length (Lo) and a frequency of activation in excess of 200 Hz
A motor unit can be defined as:
a) a single motor neuron and al of the muscle fibers it innervates
b) the smallest functional unit of the neuro-muscular system
c) one muscle cell and its single neuromuscular connection
d) a and b
e) all
d) a and b
Which of the following are considered sympathetic ganglia?
a) paravertebral ganglia
b) celiac ganglia
c) adrenal medulla
d) a and b
e) all
e) all
ATP requirements of a working muscle fier (at the cross bridges) are met:
a) immediately by creative phosphate reserves
b) immediately by creative phosphate rephosphorylation of ADP
c) eventually by the Krebs cycle
d) all
e) b and c
e) b and c
The myosin cross-bride cycling:
a) requires ATP hydrolysis
b) involves interaction of myosin heads and the actin filament
c) can only occur if Ca++ is present
d) b and c
e) all
e) all
The rate of cross-bridge cycling:
a) is depend on the amount of ATP
b) is closely related to the type of myosin present
c) is measured in an isometric contraction
d) b and c
e) all
b) is closely related to the type of myosin present
The smallest functional unit of the muscle fiber is:
a) sarcomere
b) sarcolemma
c) sarcoplasmic reticulum
d) muscle cell
e) none
a) sarcomere
Referred pain is a term used to describe:
a) the memory of pain
b) a pain that originates in one part of the body, but feels like it originates somewhere else
c) a heart attack or a headache
d) none
b) a pain that originates in one part of the body, but feels like it originates somewhere else
Gustatory cells are:
a) chemoreceptors
b) located on tongue papillae in structures called taste buds
c) connected to neurons in cranial nerve 10
d) two
e) all
e) all
Key differences between fast and slow muscle fibers include:
a) fast fibers contain less oxidative enzymes
b) slow fibers have more mitochondria
c) slwo fibers generally fatigue more easily
d) all
e) two
e) two
Which of the following circumstance would cause a muscle fiber to produce more lactic acid?
a) avitivity which requires recruitment of oxidative(slow) motor units
b) activity which requires recruitment of glycolytic(fast) motor units
c) both activities would yield the same amount of lactic acid
d) neither would yield any
b) activity which requires recruitment of glycolytic(fast) motor units
Which of the following are "general or somatic senses?"
a) taste, smell, hearing
b) vision, equilibrium
c) pain, pressure, vibration, temperature
d) some
e) all
c) pain, pressure, vibration, temperature
Muscle fatigue can result from which of the following?
a) acidic pH
b) CO (carbon monoxide) poisoning
c) depletion of glycogen
d) a and c
e) all
e) all
Which type of receptor is involved with pain senstaions?
a) mechano
b) chemo
c) noci
d) thermo
e) electro
c) noci
Troponin and tropomyosin:
a) act to regulate cross-bridge activity
b) interfere with actin and myosin
c) bind Na++ during a muscle contraction
d) all
e) two
e) two
The Na+ chemical gate in a motor neuron:
a) opens when acetylcholine binds to it
b) has three different states of activity/inactivity
c) starts the action potential
d) a and b
e) b and c
a) opens when acetylcholine binds to it
Two beakers contain one liter of water each. To beaker A you add on emole of NaCl and to beaker B one mole of glucose. Which beaker has teh highest osmolarity?
a) beaker A
b) beaker B
c) both have the same
a) beaker A
Which of the following are possible functions of the T-tubule of a muscle fiber?
a) to extend the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the myofilaments
b) to conduct the wave of sarcolemmal depolarization deep into the fiber
c) to allow nutrients and oxygen to gain access to the myofibrils
d) a and b
e) all
e) all
If I need to produce more muscle force, I can:
a) activeate more motor units
b) decrease the number of action potentials to fibers already active
c) hypertrophy existing muscle fibers
d) a and c
e) all
d) a and c
Smooth muscle cells have ___ wehreas skeletal muscle fibers do not.
a) tropomyosin
b) myosin ATPase
c) calmodulin
d) Z disks
e) sarcoplasmic reticulum
c) calmodulin
The auditory ossicles are:
a) the malleus, incus and stapes
b) bones in the middle ear
c) critical to transfer sound directly to the round window
d) two
e) all
d) two
Cardiac muscle differs from skeletal muscle in which of the following ways:
a) cardiac muscle has no striations
b) skeletal muscle has a better developed sarcoplasmic reticulum
c) cardiac muscle fibers are non-mitotic
d) a and b
e) b and c
b) skeletal muscle has a better developed sarcoplasmic reticulum
The size principle:
a) explains why a large diameter, fast conducting axon depolarizes associated muscle cells first
b) explains why a small motor unit depolarizes first
c) explains how a large organism has larger muscle fibers than a small one
d) some
e) ll
b) explains why a small motor unit depolarizes first
Sensory adaptation is a term used to describe:
a) the increase in action potentials caused by increased sensory stimulus
b) the reduction in action potentials in the presence of steady state sensory stimulus
c) a type of muscle fiber that changes from slow to fast with decrease load
d) some
e) all
b) the reduction in action potentials in the presence of steady state sensory stimulus
The speed a given muscle fiber contracts is directly related to:
a) the size of the innervating axon
b) the type of myosin isoform
c) the amount of resistance to the imposed contraction
d) a and b
e) b and c
e) b and c
The ion of this element has 12 protons and 10 electrons.
a) F
b) O
c) Na
d) Mg
e) none
d) Mg
Genes code for which of the following macromolecules:
a) lipids
b) proteins
c) carbohydrates
d) two
e) all
b) proteins
Why does the sense of smell diminish with age but not the sense of tase?
a) taste receptors are mitotic so new cells form every few days
b) olfactory cells are subjected to wear and tear from the environment
c) as you age you smell better so you don't need as many receptors
d) a and b
e) all
d) a and b
If a reaction has high actication energy, it may be overcome by:
a) asddition of a catalyst
b) adding energy from teh deydration synthesis of ATP
c) decreasing the temperature
d) a and c
e) all
a) asddition of a catalyst
Gluconeogenesis is a term that describes:
a) catabolism of glucose
b) synthesis of glycogen
c) synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates
d) catabolism of glycogen
e) none
c) synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates
Beta-Oxidation is a term that describes:
a) the emission of a neutron from the nucleus of an atom
b) the conversion of fatty-acids to acetyl-CoA
c) catabolism of protein
d) none
b) the conversion of fatty-acids to acetyl-CoA
Hormone release is controlledy by:
a) other hormones
b) chemistry of body fluids
c) neurons
d) all
e) some
d) all
Endocrine secretions:
a) affect all cells
b) affect only those cells containing the proper receptors
c) are ducted to the epithelium
d) b and c
e) none
b) affect only those cells containing the proper receptors
The process of bleaching a photoreceptor(rod or cone) will:
a) depolarize the bi-polar cell
b) inhibit the release of glutamate from the rod or cone
c) depolarize the rod or cone
d) a and b
e) b and c
d) a and b
Which of the following is(are) true?
a) the cochlear duct is filled with endolymph
b) the tectorial membrane vibrates auditory hair cells
c) otoliths are found in teh macula
d) a and c
e) all
e) all