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181 Cards in this Set

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Contain carbon, are covalently bonded, and are often large.
Organic Compounds
Do not contain carbon. Water, salts, and many acids and bases.
Inorganic compounds
What are the 5 properties of water?
High heat capacity, high heat of vaporization, polar solvent properties, reactivity (hydrolysis/dehydration synthesis), and cushioning
What are the differences between acids and bases?
-Acids release H+ and are therefore proton donors (HCl=H+ + Cl-) pH is 6 and lower.
-Bases release OH- and are proton acceptors (NaOH=Na+ = OH-) pH is 8 and higher.
What is true regarding cells and pH levels?
All cells are sensitive to slight pH change (pH affects chemical reactions).
Which is a stronger base?
a) pH of 8
b) pH of 10
b. pH of 10
Which is a stronger acid?
a) pH of 3
b) pH of 5
a. pH of 3
Systems that resist abrupt and large swings in the pH of body fluids. Weak acid/weak base.
Buffers
-Carbonic acid dissociates, reversible releasing bicarbonate ions and protons.
-The chemical equilibrium between carbonic acid and bicarbonate resists pH changes in the blood.
Cabonic acid-bicarbonate systems
-Molecules unique to living systems contain carbon, and hence are ___________.
-They include: Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Exceptions are CO2 (carbon dioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide).
Organic Compounds
-Contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
-Their major function is to supply a source of cellular food.
-Monosaccharides
Carbohydrates
Name the disaccharide:
Two glucose molecules
Maltose
Name the disaccharide:
Galactose + glucose molecules
Lactose
Name the disaccharide:
Glucose + fructose molecules
Sucrose
Name the monosaccharides
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
Ribose
Name three polysaccharides
Starch
Glycogen
Cellulose
To form a bond by removing a molecule of water.
Dehydration synthesis
To add water to break a bond.
Hydrolysis
Ready source of fuel
Glucose - ATP
-Contains C, H, and O, but the proportion of oxygen is less than in carbohydrates.
-Examples: neutral fats or triglyverides, phospholipids, steroids, eicosanoids.
Lipids
-Composed of three fatty acids bounded to a glycerol (backbone) molecule.
-Nonpolar
Neutral fats (Triglycerides)
Molecule with both polar and non-polar regions.
Ampipathic
Modified triglycerides with two fatty acid groups and a phosphorus group.
Phospholipids
Lipid with flat molecules with four interlocking hydrocarbon rings.
Steroids
Lipid with 20-carbon fatty acids found in cell membranes.
Eicosanoids
Body prefers:
Carbohydrates/glucose
Lipids
Carbs/glucose
True or False:
Water could desolve the polar end of a phospholipid.
True
Representative lipids found in the body:
Found in subcutaneous tissue and around organs.
Neutral fats
Representative lipids found in the body:
Chief component of cell membranes.
Phospholipids
Representative lipids found in the body:
Cholesterol, bile salts, vitamin D, sex hormones, and adrenal cortical hormones.
Steroids
Representative lipids found in the body:
Vitamins A, E, and K
Fat-soluable vitamins
Representative lipids found in the body:
Prostaglandins,leukotriens, and thromboxanes.
Eicosanoids
Representative lipids found in the body:
Transport fatty acids and cholesterol in the bloodstream.
Lipoporteins
Have amine and acid (caboxyl) groups.
Amino acids
What percent of cell mass contain Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen?
10% - 30%
Structual material necessary for cell function (enzyme).
Catalysts - speed up reaction.
Protein
Macromolecules composed of combinations of 20 types of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds.
Protein
Amino acid sequence - how many and in what structure.
Primary structural level of proteins
Alpha helices or beta pleated sheets. Hydrogen bonds create attraction, forming structure.
Secondary structural level of proteins
Superimposed folding of secondary structures (folded alpha helix).
Tertiary
Polypeptide chains linked together in a specific manner. Many (hemoglobin)
Quaternary structural level of protein
Proteins are long chains of amino acids joined together by dehydration synthesis, witht he amine end of one amino acid linked to the acid end of the next. The resulting bond produces a characteristic arrangement of two linked atoms called a ____________.
Peptide bond
Two or more united atoms amino acids form a _____________.
Polypeptide bond
Extended and strandlike proteins. Examples: keratin, elastin, collagen, and certain contractile fibers. Insoluable in H2O.
Fibrous Proteins/Structural Proteins
Compact, spherical proteins with tertiary and quaternary structures. Examples: antibodies, hormones, and enzymes. H2O soluable. Functional proteins, not stable (easily disturbed).
Globular proteins
Substance that an enxyme acts upon.
Substrate
Reversible unfolding of proteins due to drops in pH and/or increased temperature.
Protein denaturization
Where the substrate is binded by the enzyme.
Active site
Irreversible denatured proteins cannot refold and are formed by extreme pH or temperature changes.
Protein denaturization
Change shape of enzyme to distupt active site and the enzyme no longer functions.
Denaturization
Biological catalysts.
Enzymes
True or False:
Enzymes themselves are not changed during the reaction. Not part of reaction, just catalysts.
True
What are the six characteristics of exzymes?
-Most are globular proteins that act as biological catalysts (regulate and accelerate chemical reactions).
-Holoenzymes consist of an apoenzyme (protein) and a cofactor (usually an ion).
-Chemically specific
-Frequently names for the type of reaction they catalyze
-Usually end in -ase
-Lower activation energy
A functional enzyme usually consists of two parts, collectively called what? What are the two parts?
Holoenzyme:
apoenzyme (protein)
cofactor (usually an ion)
What are the three mechanisms of an enzyme?
-Enzyme binds with substrate at active site
-Product is formed at a lower activation energy
-Product is released
Nucleotides consist of three components. What are the three components?
A nitrogen-containing base,
a pentose sugar,
and a phosphate group.
What are the five major varieties of nitrogen-containing bases that contribute to a nucleotide structure?
Adenine(A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Thymine (T), and Uracil (U).
What are the two major classes of nucleic acids?
RNA and DNA
-Double structured helical molecule found in the nucleus of the cell
-Replicates itself before the cell divides, ensuring genetic continuity
-Provides instructions for protein synthesis
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
Compete with normal substrate.
Inhibitors/competetive enzyme inhibitors
Found in the nucleus (control center) of the cell, where it constitutes the genetic material, or genes.
DNA
What two things contribute to the backbone (sides) of the DNA helix, to which the bases connect.
Deoxyribose sugar and phosphates.
Chiefly located outside the nucleus and can be considered a "molecular slave." Carries out the orders for protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Name the complimentary bases for each (for DNA):
A - ?
C - ?
T - ?
G - ?
A - T
C - G
T - A
G - C
Name the complimentary bases for each (for RNA):
A - ?
C - ?
U - ?
G - ?
A - U
C - G
U - A
G - C
Acts as a chemical "driveshaft" to provide a form of energy that is immediately used by all body cells. Energy released during glucose catabolism is coupled to ______________.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Adenine + Ribose + one, two, or three phosphate groups.
Single-stranded molecule found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of a cell. Uses the nitrogenous base uracil instead of thyamine. Three varieties.
RNA:
mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA
When bases separate and hydrogen bonds are broke. DNA helices begin unwinding from the nucleosomes, helicase untwists the double helix and exposes complimentary strands, each nucleotide strands serves as a template for building a new complimentary strand.
DNA Replication
Enzyme that makes new DNA; adds complimentary strands.
DNA Polymerase III
What does the replisome use to begin DNA synthesis?
RNA Primers
"Caps" on the end of strands so that they don't unwind.
Telomeres
Since DNA polymerace only works in one direction, what is true in DNA replication?
A continuous leading strand is synthesized. A discontinuous lagging strand in synthesized. DNA ligase splice together the short segments of the discontinuous strand. Two new telomeres are also synthesized.
A continuous leading strand is synthesized. A discontinuous lagging strand in synthesized. DNA ligase splice together the short segments of the discontinuous strand. Two new telomeres are also synthesized. What is this process called?
Semiconservative DNA replication.
Serves as a master blueprint for protein synthesis.
DNA
Segments of DNA carrying instructions for a polypeptide chain.
Genes
Coding for one (1) amino acid in the polypeptide chain.
Triplets of nucleotide bases
RNA that carries the genetic information from DNA to the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
RNA bound to amino acid base pair with the codons of mRNA at the ribosome to begin the process of protein synthesis.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA that is a structural component of ribosomes.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Transfer of information from the sense strand (template strand) of DNA to RNA.
Transcription
Loosens histones from DNA in the area to be transcribed. Binds to promoter, a DNA sequence specifying the start site of RNA synthesis. Mediates the binding of RNA polymerase to promoter.
Transcription factor
An enzme that oversees the synthesis of RNA. Unwinds the DNA template. Adds complimentary ribonucleic triphosphates on the DNA template. Joins these RNA nucleotides together. Encodes a termination signal to stop transcription.
RNA Polymerase during transcription
In cytoplasm: a leader sequence on mRNA attaches to the small subunit of the ribosome. Methione-charged initiator tRNA binds to the small subunit. The large ribosomal unit now binds to this complex forming a functional ribosome.
Initiation of Translation
RNA codons code for amino acids according to ________.
Genetic code
What are the four steps of information transfer from DNA to RNA?
-DNA triplets are transcribed into mRNA codons by RA polymerase
-Codons base pair with tRNA anticodons at the ribosomes
-Amino acids are peptide bonded at the ribosomes to form polypeptide chains
-Start and stop codons are used in initiating and ending translation
Digestive organelle
Lysosome
Nonfunctional organelle proteins are degraded by lysosomes. Ubiquitin attaches to soluable proteins and the are degraded in proteasomes.
Protein Degradation
Amino acids are connected by ___________.
Peptide bonds.
Body fluids and cellular secretions.
Extracellular matrix, or materials
Digests and absorbs food.
The alimentary canal, or gastrointestinal (GI) tract
Consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
Alimentary Canal
Consists of the teeth, tongue, gallblader, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas. Tears up food/secrete aids for digestion.
Accessory digestive organs
Known as the "disassembly" line.
The GI tract
What are the six essential activities of the digestive process?
Ingestion, propulsion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption, and defacation.
Taking food into the digestive tract.
Ingestion
What does "distally" mean?
To move away from
a) Moves food distally
b) mixing; moves food back and forth
a) peristalsis
b) segmentation
Swallowing and peristalsis.
Propulsion
Waves of contraction and relaxation of muscles in the organ walls.
Peristalsis
Chewing, mixing, and churning food.
Mechanical digestion
Catabolic breakdown of food.
Chemical digestion
Movement of nutrients from the GI tract to the blood or lymph.
Absorption
Elimination of indigestible solid wastes.
Defacation
Solute concentration.
Osmolarity
External environment for the digestive process. Regulation involves mechanical and chemical stimuli (stretch receptors, osmolarity, and presence of substrate in the lumen). Extrinsic control by CNS centers (nervous system not involved). Intrinsic control by local centers.
GI tract
These initiate reflexes that activate or inhibit digestive glands. Mix lumen contents and move them along.
Receptors of the GI tract
Serous membrane of the abdominal cavity.
Peritoneum
Covers external surface of most digestive organs.
Visceral
Lines the body wall.
Parietal
Between layers; lubricates digestive organs. Allows them to slide across one another.
Paritoneal cavity
Double layer of peritoneum that provides vascular and nerve supplies to the viscera, and a means to hold digestive organs in place and store fat.
Mesentery (peritoneum and peritoneal cavity)
Organs outside the peritoneum.
Retroperitoneal organs
Organs surrounded by the peritoneum.
Paritoneal organs (intraperitoneal)
Collects nutrient-rich venous blood from the digestive viscera. Delivers this blood to the liver for metabolic processing and storage.
Hepatic portal circulation
Histology of the Alimentary Canal: The four tunics (layers) from the esophagus to the anal canal of the GI tract.
From the lumen outward they are:
Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis esterna, and serosa.
What are two characteristics of the tunics of the GI tract?
Each has a predominant tissue type and specific digestive function.
Moist epithelial layer that lines the lumen of the alimentary canal.
Mucosa
What are the three major functions of the mucosa?
-Secretion of mucus
-Absorption of the end products of digestion
-Protection against infectious disease
What are two functions of mucus secretion?
-Protect digestive organs from digesting themselves
-Ease food along the tract
The stomach and small intestine mucosa contain ________ and _________.
-Enzyme-secreting cells
-Hormone-secreting cells (making them endocrine and digestive organs).
Dense connective tissue containing elastic fibers, blood and lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and nerves.
Submucosa
Responsible for segmentation and peristalsis.
Muscularis externa
The protective viscereal peritoneum. Replaced by the fibrous adventitia in the esophagus/retroperitineal organs have both an adventitia and serosa.
Serosa
Composed of two major intrinsicnerve plexuses:
Submucosal nerve plexus, myenteric nerve plexus. Segmentation and peristalsis are largely automatic involving local reflex arcs.
Enteric Nervous System
Regulates glands and smooth muscle in the mucosa.
Submucosal nerve plexus
Major nerve supply that controls GI tract mobility.
Myenteric nerve plexus
Have a core of skeletal muscles, including the orbicularis oris and the buccinators.
Lips and Cheeks
Underlain by palatine bones and palatine processes of the maxillae.
Hard palate
Mobile fold formed mostly of skeletal muscle. Closes the nasopharynx during swallowing, uvula projects downward from its free edge.
Soft palate
Functions include gripping and repositioning food during chewing, mixing food with saliva and forming the bolus, and initiation of swallowing and speech.
Tongue
Change the shape of the tongue.
Intrinsic muscles
Alter the tongue's position.
Extrinsic muscles
Secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth.
Lingual frenulum
Gives the tongue roughness and provides friction. Smalles, most numerous.
Filiform
Scattered widely over the tongue and give it a reddish hue. House taste buds.
Fungiform
V-shaped row in back of tongue. House taste buds.
Circumvallate
What are the three pairs of extrinsic glands?
Parotid, submadibular, and sublingual
Buccal glands scattered throughout the oral mucosa.
Intrinsic salvary glands
Secreted from serous and mucus cells of the salvary glands. 97-99.5% water, hypo-osmotic, slightly acidic solution containg electrolytes, digestive enzyme (salivary amylase), proteins, and metabolic waste (urea and uric acid).
Saliva
Formed by age 21
Primary and permanent dentitions
There are usually how many permanent teeth?
32 permanent teeth
Label teeth from front to back
Incisors, lateral, premolars, second premolars, molars, second molar, third molar (wisdom teeth)
Chisel-shaped teeth adapted for cutting or nipping.
Incisors
Conical or fanglike teeth that tear or pierce.
Canines
Have broad crowns with rounded tips and are best suited for grinding or crushing.
Premolars (bicuspids)
What are the two main regions of the tooth?
Crown and root
Constriction where the crown and root come together.
Neck
Meaning "no cells"
Acellular
Connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves of the tooth.
Pulp
From the mouth, the oro- and laryngo- allow the passage of food.
Pharynx
Muscular tube going from the laryngopharynx to the stomach. Travels through the mediastinum and pierces the diaphram. Joins the stomach at the cardiac orifice.
Esophagus
Nonkertinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Esophageal mucosa
Involves the coordinated activity of the tongue, soft palate, pharynx, and 22 separate muscle groups.
Deglutition (swallowing)
Where chemical breakdown of proteins begins and food is converted to chyme.
Stomach
Name all parts of the stomach.
Cardiac region, fundus, body, pyloric region, pylorus, duodenum, pyloric sphincter, greater and lesser curvature, lesser and greater omentum.
Surrounds the cadiac orifice.
Cardiac region
Dome-shaped region beneath the diaphram.
Fundus
Made up of the antrum and canal which terminates at the pylorus.
Pyloric regiion
Entire extent of the convex lateral surface.
Greater curvature
Concave medial surface.
Lesser curvature
Runs from the liver to the lesser curvature.
Lesser omentum
Drapes inferiorly from the greater curvature to the small intestine.
Greater omentum
What protects the stomach from stomach acids (HCl)?
Alkaline mucus
Has an additional oblique layer that allows the stomach to churn, mix, and pummel food physically. Breaks down food into smaller fragments.
Muscularis
Glycoprotein required for B12 absorption.
Intrinsic factor
Secrete HCl and intrinsic factor.
Parietal cells
Secrete gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, CCk, and somatostatin.
Enteroendocrine cells
Holds ingested food, degrades this food both physically and chemically, delivers chyme to small intestine, enzymatically digests proteins with pepsin, secretes intrinsic factor.
Stomach
Stimulatory and inhibitory events occur in three phases:
Cephalic, Gastric, and Intestinal
Sight or thought of food.
Stimulation of taste or smell receptors.
Excitatory events (Cephalic phase)
Loss of apetite or depression.
Inhibitory events (Cephalic Phase)
Stomach distention, activation of stretch receptors, activation of chemoreceptors by peptides, caffeine, and rising pH, and release of gastrin to the blood.
Excitatory events (Gastric phase)
A lower pH than 2, emotional upset that overrides the parasympathetic division.
Inhibitory events (Gastric phase)
Low pH, partially digested food enters the duodenum and encourages gastric gland activity.
Excitatory events (Intestinal phase)
Distention of duodenum, presence of fatty, acidic, or hypertonic chyme, and/or irritants in the duodenum.
Inhibitory events (Intestinal phase)
If an inhibitory event does not occur and a pH lowe than 2 is reaches, what happens?
Ulcers (holes in stomach)
What stimulates secretion of HCl?
A Ch, ,histammine, and gastrin
When is release of HCl low and high?
Low- if only one ligand binds to parietal cells
High- If all three ligands bind to parietal cells
Stomach pressure remains constant until how much food is digested?
1 L of food
Where does most vigorous peristalsis waves occur?
Near the pylorus
Either delivered in small amounts to the duodenum or forced backward into the stomach for further mixing.
Chyme