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139 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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anatomy & physiology
anatomy- deals w/ structures of body parts, -forms and organizations

physiology- functions of body parts-what they do and how they do it

function of part depends on way it is constructed
levels of organization and 2 that have life
atom, molecule, macromolecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

*cell & organism
10 characteristics of life
1.Movement- change in body position, motion of organs
2. Responsiveness-sensing or reacting to internal or external changes
3.Growth- increase in body size, w/o change in shape
4. Reproduction- production offspring
5. Respiration-obtaining O2, using O2 to release E from foods, removing gasesous wastes
6. Digestion-breakdown of food sub. into forms to be absorped
7.Absorption-passage of sub. through membranes into body fluids
8.Circulation-movement of substances in body fluids
9.Assimilation-changing of absorbed sub. into chemically different forms
10.Excretion removal of waiste from metabolism
5 requirements of organisms
1.h20-for met. processes, medium for met reactions, trans sub, reg body temp
2. food- supply E and raw materials for prod of necc. sub, reg vital reactions
3.o2- release E from food sub, drives met reactions
4.Heat-reg rates of metabolic reactions
5. Pressure- application of force, atmospheric for breathing, hydrostatic to help circ blood
homeostasis
-bodies maintance of a stable internal environment
-most of met E spent on it
homeostatic mechanisms
1.Receptors- provide info about specific conditions in internal envirn.
2.Control center-has set pt, tells what particular value should be
3.Effectors-(ex.muscles/glands-cause responses that alterconditions in internal environ.

inlcude those tha regulate body temp, BP,Blood glucose
Metabolism
acquistion & utilization of E by an organism
negative feedback loop
process of homeostatic mech to detect changes, activate effectors to return conditions to normal and reg homeostasis
axial portion
head, kneck and trunk
appendicular portion
upper and lower limbs
dorsal cavity
cranial cavity-brain
vertebral cavity-spinal cord, & surrounded by sectionsof back bone
ventral cavity
1.thoracic cavity-heart&lungs
2.abdominopelvic cavity-ab-sm&lg intestines, somtach pelvic-urinary,genitals,ends of dig system
what seperates thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities?
diaphram-broad thin muscle
mediastinum
region btwn lungs
serous membranes
line walls of thoracic and abdominal cavities, fold back to cover organs in these cavities, secrete serous fluid that sep the layer linging the wall from layer covering oragan
parietal serous membranes
lines walls, secrete serous fluid
visceral serous membranes
covers oragans, secretes serous fluids
pleural membranes
line thoracic cavities & cover lungs
viscera
organs w/in a body cavity
pericardial membranes
surround heart and cover its surface
pleural & pericardial cavities
potential spaces btwn membranes
peritoneal membranes
line abdominopelvic cavity & cover its organs
11 main body systems
integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous,endocrine,digestive,respitory, cardiovascular,lymphatic,urinary, reproductive
integumentary system
covers body,-skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, &sebacious glands, protects underlying tissue, regulates body temp, has sens receptors, synthesizes substances
skeletal system
bones, ligaments, cartilage that bind bones together, framework, protective shield, attachements for muscles
muscular system
muscles of body-body movement, maintains posture, produces heat
nervous system
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs-receives impulse from sensory parts interprets them, acts on them stimulating muscles or glands to respond
endocrine system
glands-secretes hormones that help reg met. by stimulating target tissues includes pituitary, thyroid, adrenal ovaires, testes, thymus etc
digestive system
receives food, breaks down nutrients that can pass through cell membranes eliminates materials not absorbed-mouth, tongue, esophagus, stomach etc
respitory system
takes in and release air & exchanges gases btwn blood and air - lungs trachea, bronchi
cardiovascular system
heart-pumps blood, blood vessels-carry blood to and from body parts, trnasports O2,nutrientsm hormones and waiste
lymphatic system
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes,thymus, spleen- immune system
urinary system
kindeys, ureters, bladdre, urethra-filters waiste from blood,maintain fluid and electrolyte balance
reproductive system
enables organism to reproduce
superior
above another part, closer to head
inferior
below another part, closer to feet
anterior
toward front
posterior
toward back
medial
relates to imaginary midline dividing body into equal right and left halves, medial if closer to this line that another part(nose medial to eyes)
lateral
toward side w/ respect to imaginary line (ears lateral to eyes)
ipsalateral
pertains to same side
contralateral
refers to opp side
proximal
closer to trunk of body or closer to another part than another (elbow proxiaml to wrist but not toe)
distal
part is farther from trunk or spec other part (toes distal to elbow)
superfical
near surface
peripheral
outward or near surface, describes location of certain blood vessels and nerves
deep
more internal
sagittal
lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left portions
transverse
cut that divides body into superior and inferior portions
coronal
divides body into anterior and posterior
4 body regions
1.right upper quadrant-RUQ

2.Left upper quadrant-LUQ

3.Right lower quadrant-RLQ

Left lower quadrant-LLQ
matter
anything that has weight and takes up space
ch2 start:
biochemistry
chemistry of living organisms
element
naturally occuring matter is made up of 92 elements
occur most frequently in compounds,and are composed of atoms
atoms
smallest complete units of elements that has properties of that element atoms of diff elements vary in size, weight and ways of interacting
compound
elements that are part of chemical combinations
bulk element
elements the body needs in lg amounts- O, H,C,N, S,P - make up more than95% of body
trace elements
elements required by body in sm amounts
ultra trace elements
elements required by the body in sm amounts that in lg amounts may be toxic-arenic
atomic structure
atom has central nucleus, 1 or more elctron that constantly moves around nucleus, nucleus has protons and neutrons
whats in nucleus of H?
only i proton...no neutron
proton
relatively lg particle in nucleus, has positive charge & equal weight as neutrons in nucleus
complete atom
electrically neutral
electron
almost no weight, negative electrical charge, is in constant motion around nucleus, largley determines how atoms will interact w/ each other
neutron
particle w/ about same weight as a P, no charge-neutral, found in nucleus
ion
particle that is elctrically charge because it has gained or loss at least one or more electrons
molecule
particel formed by union of two or more atoms
atomic #
= to # of protons in each atom
atomic weight
= to # of protons + # of neutrons in each atom
isotope
atoms w/ same atomic #, but diff atomic weight due to differing #'s of neutrons, all isotopes of an element chemically react in the same manner, some isotopes are radioactive and release atomic radiation
molecular formula
represents the #'s and kinds of atoms in a molecule
if atoms of the same and different elements combine what happens?
same combine- produce molecule of that element

different combine- form molecules of substances called compounds
bonds
when atoms combine w/ other atoms as a result of interactions btwn their electrons
electron shells
found around nucleus,
1st holds 2, 2nd holds 8, 3rd holds 8, w/ lower energy levels filled first, # in outer shell determines whether it will react with another atom
atomic reactions & octet rule
react in a way that leaves outer most shell completly filled, acheiving more stable structure known as octet rule
inert atoms
have outermost electron shell filled and therefore are inactive
what happens when lose and gain electrons
lose- become +
gain- become -
ionic bonds vs covalent bonds
ionic- when ions of opp charges attract and join- when Na loses an electron to Cl and they attract
covalent- when atoms bond by sharing electrons- when 2 H atoms share a pair of elctrons
polar bond
=# of protons & electrons but one end has more electrons than the other-H2O, so one end is + and one end is -
hydrogen bonds
bonds btwn H in a compound- Weak!!!!
reactant
bonds being changed in a chemical reaction
products
bonds formed at end of reactions conclusion
3 kinds of chem reactions
1.lg molecules form from sm ones
2.decomposition- lg particles break down to form sm ones
3.exchange reactions-parts of 2 diff molecules trade position
breaking bonds___
creating bonds____
breaking releases energy
creating requires energy
reversible reaction
products can change back to the reactants, direction of reversal depends on proportion of reactants and products, the energy available and the presence or absence of catalysts
catalyst
influence rates of chem reactions but are not consumed in the reaction
electrolytes
substances that release ions in h2O
acids
electrolytes that release H in H2O
bases
substances that combine w/ H atoms
salts
combo of acid and base reaction
Ph Scale
7-0 H+ concentration increases- gets more acidic-apple juice, gastric juice
7-14 OH- sconcentration increase-basic(alkaline)-amonia, milk of magnesia

each # represents 10 fold
inorganic substances body requires
inorganic substance usually react w/ H2O or disolve in H2O to release ions-(electrolytes)-H2o, O, CO2, & inorganic salts
4 organic substances and their building blocks
1.Carbs-provide much of E cell requires-BB=simple sugar molecules
2.Lipids-fats(triglyceride) phosp.& steroids-supply E and used to build cell parts-BB=molecules of glycerol & fatty acids
3.proteins-basically structural, E sources, hormones, enzymes& catalysts-BB=amino acids
4.nucleic acids-constitute genes, instructions that control cell activity and direct protein syn.BB=nucleotides-most important=composed of RNA,DNA
phospholipids
glycerol (phospho head), and fatty acid tail
phosphate portion is soluable in H2O and fatty acid tail insoluable in H2O
steroids
complex structures w/ connected rings of C atoms-cholesterol
saturated fats
fat molecules that contain only saturated fatty acids-no double bonds, sat w/ H atoms
unsaturated fats
include unsaturated fatty acids-has at least one double bond
ch3 start
3 major parts of a cell
1.nucleaus-inner most, encosed by nucleaur envelope, hold genetic material
2.cytoplasm-mass of fluid that surrounds nucleus, and is encircled by a thinnermembrane-(plasma membrane)
has cytoplasmic organelles within it suspeneded in cytosol that perform specific functions
3.cell membrane-selectively permeable outermost part of cell consisting of phospholipid bilayer embedded w/ proteins
cell membrane
hydrophilic phosphate head, fatty acid tail, maintains integrity of cell, controls entrane & exit of substances,
signal transduction
allows the cell to recieve and respond to incoming messages
lipid solulable molecules
-oxygen, CO2 and steroid hormones
-amino acids, sugars, proteins, nucleic acids and various ions cannot pass through
lipis move through plasma membrane through____________
diffusion
cellular adhesion molecule
CAMS-allow certain cells to touch or bind- proteins that guide cellular movemeent w/in body
3 intercellular junctions
(cite of union btwn cells)
1.tight junctions-when membranes of adjacent cells converge and fuse, surrounding cell like a belt and junction closes-ex-cells that line digestive tract in sheetlike layers
2.desomones-rivets adjacent skin cells, so they form reinforced structural units
3.gap junctions- form tubular channels that link the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and allow ions, nutrients and other small molecules to move btwn them
ribosome
composed of protein and RNA and provide a structural support and enzymatic activity required to link amino acids to from protein-protein syntheseis
endoplasmic reticulum
rough & smooth
composed of connected membraneous sacs, canals, vessiclaes that provide a tubular communication system and an attachement for ribosoes, also functions in protein syn. (conveyor belt where products made)

smooth-where lipids syn.
rough-has ribosomes-sites of protein syn. that then move through tubules of ER to the golgi for further processing
golgi apparatus
contuation of the conveyor belt E.R.
stack of flattened, membraneous sacs that package glycoprotieins for secretion
vesicles
membraneous, cytoplasmic sac formed by an infolding of the cell mem. usually brings a sm amount of liquid or solid into & outof cells
mitochondria
mebraneous sacs containing enzymes that catalyze the reactions that release energy from nutrient molecules and transform it into a usable form
(energy producing area) majority if citric acid cycle & electron trans chain happens here
ATP
adenosine triophosphate-biological energy molecule, important in cellular respiration in mitoc.
lysosomes
garbage disposal
membraneous sacs containing digestive enzymes that destroy debris and worn out organelles-hook together with other cells and break down bad stuff
proxisomes
like lysosomes, most abundant in liver &kidney cells, contain peroxidases which contains enzymes that decompose H peroxide
centrisomes
"butruses"
nonmembraneos structure consisting of 2 centrioles that aid in the distribution of chromosomes during cell division- pull on & distribute chromosomes
clilia & flagella
motile extensions on some cell surfaces
cilia--numerous tiny, hairlike structures on that wave, moving fluids across the cell surfaces-usually on epithelial cells-inner linning of resp track for ex
flagella-longer extensions such as tail of sperm
micro filaments
tiny rods of protein actin that occur in meshwork or bundles & cause various kinds of cellular movement
micro tubules
long slender tubes with diameters 2 or 3 times bigger than microfilaments. composed of tubulin-help form cytoskeleton
aid in cellular movement &support and stablilize cell
what is in the nucleus?
1,cromatin fibers that encase DNA-(what chromosomes are made of when chromatin condenses & becomes more formed)
nucleaus is encased by?
double layer envelope- which conists of inner & outter lipid bilayer mebrane
nucleaur pores
round openings(channeles) that join the two bilayers of the nuclear envelope
nucleoulus
w/in nucleus- small dense body that has RNA and DNA & proteins where ribosomes are created
chromatin
loosley coiled fibers in the nucleaur fluid, tightly coil to form chromosomes-composed of DNA fibers coiled around histones(clusters sof proteins)
chromosomes house____
genes and genses house DNA
passive vs active
passive- requires no energy to be generated at the site
active- requires energy from cellular met.
4 passive ways to get stuff in
1. diffusion-when molecules move from high concentration to -low concentration
2.faciliatated diffusion- diffusiosn of lg particles (across selectively permeable mem that cant fit through cell membrane)
3.osmosis-diffusion of H2O
4.filtration-when molecules forced through mem. usually from hydrostatic pressure
hydrostatic pressure
created by the weight of H2O due to gravity
nucleic acids are BB of____
DNA & RNA
osmotic pressure
increases a # of partiocles in a solution increase

cells loose water when in hypertonic
gain when in hypotonic
isotonic when cell has same conc of disolved part as cell contents
what 3 things in active transport?
endocytosis, excocytosis and transcytosis
endocytosis
how stuff gets in, has pino, phago, and cell mediated endo
pinocytosis
bringing in H2) or other fluids-cell indents, then that indent seals of fluid into a vesicle and cell closes and goes into cytoplasm of cell, breaks down and fluid become part of cell
phagocytosis
gets solid(bacteria) in- takes in particle like in pino, then a lysosome in cell attatches to the vesicle and digests particle then diffuse out of cell
cell mediated endocytosis
moves specific paritcles into cell
receptor proteins extend out of cell, ligands(molecules that bond spec to receptors) bond to ligand receptors and are brought in through an indent etc.
exocytosis
how get things out such as newly syntheiszed proteins
cell cycle has what 3 basic parts?
interphase-growing & replicating of DNA, mitosis-(P,M,T,A)-how all cells divide except sex cells and Cytokinesis-divsion into 2 cells
interphase
3 phases
G1-cell growth, S phase- replication of DNA and G2 phase-grows more
mitosis
Prophase-chromatin condense & become visible as chromosomes, nucleur env. & nucleolus disperse, spindle apparatus forms
Metaphase-chrom. align along equater
Anaphase-sister chromatids separate to opp poles of cell, events begin which lead to cyto.
Telephase-nucleaur envelope assemble around2 daughter nuclie, chromosomes decondense, spindles disappear
Cytokinesis-division of cytoplasm into 2 cells
tumor
tissue mass formed when cells lose division control
benign vs malignant
benign-similiar to tissue they grow from remains in place, eventually interfereing
Malignant-invasive, creating tissue nothing like what it grows from, extremly rapid growing-metatisize, & spread quickly
matastisis
movement of cancer cells through body