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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The presence of the iliac crest signifies the location of which vertebrae?
Where does the spinal cord end?
Vertebral level L1
What is the peripheral nervous system comprised of?
12 paired cranial nerves, and 31 paired spinal nerves
What is the difference between somatic and autonomic nerves?
Somatic nerves go to body wall
Autonomic nerves go to viscera
What is the conus medullaris?
The terminal end of the spinal cord around vertebrae L1 and L2
What is the cauda equina?
The end of the spinal cord that consists solely of nerve roots without solid spine.
From where would one obtain CSF from a LP?
The sub-arachnoid space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. Technically anywhere between L2-S2, but specifically between L2 and L5, because the sacrum are fused together
What are the three types of membranes found in the nervous system?
Dura mater--outer

Arachnoid mater-- middle, though right up against the dura mater; of a filmy web-like consistency

Pia mater--inner membrane that touches the brain itself
Where do the dura and arachnoid maters end?
Vertebra S2, while the pia mater remains on the spinal cord
What is the epidural space?
The space outside of the dura mater
What is the difference between a dorsal root and a ventral root?
A ventral root is entirely motor, while a dorsal root is entirely sensory.
How are spinal nerves named?
They are named in relation to the vertebrae between which they pass.

Ex: C1 goes between vertebrae C1 and C2
What is the general distribution of spinal nerves?
C1-T1: neck and upper limb
T1-L1: trunk
L1-S3: lower limb
S2-S4: perineum
An injury at what nerve position will result in quadraplegia?
C5 or above
An injury at what position will result in the loss of respiratory muscle function?
An injury at C3 or above
At injury at what position will result in varying degrees of paraplegia (depending on the severity of the injury)?
Below C5
What is the dural sac?
The end of the dura mater around S2
What is the purpose of an LP?
1. Measures CSF pressure
2. Sample for pathological analyses
3. Deliver anesthetics
At what position is anesthetic given to infants and younger children and why?
The epidural space because as the spinal cord/torso is still small, the dural sac is located lower.
What is a myotome?
Muscles innervated by a particular corresponding part of the spinal cord.
What is a dermatome?
That area of skin that distributes its sensory input to the spinal cord. This is key for indicating location of an anesthetic.
What are the key locations of dermatomes?
T4--around nipple
What is the nerve position of a slipped disk?
A slipped disk will affect the nerve that exits below it in the next intervertebral foramen
What areas of the body does the autonomic nervous system innervate?
Smooth muscle, glands, and the heart.
From where do the parasympathetic nerves arise?
S2-S4 (+4 cranial nerves)
-nothing to do with sympathetic ganglia
-nothing in 31 pairs of spinal nerves b/c nothing to do with body wall
What is the responsibility of the vagus nerve?
Cranial nerve X, which arises in the brain and provides parasympathetic innervation throughout entire body.
Where do sympathetic nerves arise?
Only T1-L2 segments.
Sympathetic innervation to all structures above the head arise from what segments of the spinal cord?
How do the somatic and autonomic nerve systems differ?
Somatic is voluntary movement and only contains one neuron.

The autonomic system is mostly involuntary and is a two-neuron system (pre- and post-ganglionic neurons)