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35 Cards in this Set

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Anatomy
studies the structure of body parts and their relationships to one another.
Physiology
concerns the function of the body, how the body parts work and carry out their life-sustaining activities.
Gross Anatomy (macroscopic)
study of large body structures visible to the naked eye, such as the heart, lungs, & kidneys.
Microscopic anatomy
study of structures too small to see with the naked eye
Principle of complementarity of structure & function
Function is dependent on structure, and that the form of a structure relates to its function.
Chemical level
simplest level of organization
Atoms
tiny bldg blocks of matter, combine to form molecules
molecules
combine in specific ways to form organelles, wh are the basic unit of living cells
tissue
consists of similar types of cells
organs
made up of similar types of tissues
organ systems
consists of dif. Organs that work closely together
oranismal level
the total of all structures working together to promote life. We are at organismal level. We have numerous organ systems
Homeostasis
chemical, thermal, & neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis. The ability of the body to maintain a relatively constant internal environment, regardless of environmental chages. Process of maintaining stability. The internal envir. Of body is in dynamic state of equilibrium.
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
Components: Receptor, Control Center, Effector, Negative Feedback, Positive Feedback, Hoeostatic imbalance often results in disease
Receptor
monitors the envir. & responds to changes (stimuli).
Control Center
determines the set point @ wh/ the variable is maintained
Effector:
provides the means to respond to the stimulus e.g. hormone
Negative Feedback
Neg output shuts off the original stimulus, e.g. regulation of glucose
Positive Feedback
output enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus, e.g. regulation of blood clotting
Anatomical Position
Body is erect, palms face forward, thumbs point away from the body. Right and left refer to the right and left sides of the person viewed not the observer.
Directional Terms
used to explain where one body part is in relation to another
Regional Terms
2 fundamental regions are axial: main axis of our body includes the head, neck, & trunk. Appendicular: consist of the appendages or limbs wh/ are attached to the body's axis.
Body Planes
saggital, median, midsagittal, frontal, transverse (horizontal plane or cross section), oblique sections
sagittal
vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts
median
saggital plane that lies exactly in the midline or midsaggital plane
frontal
vertically divide the body into anterior and posterior parts (front & back)
transverse
runs horizontally from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts sometimes called cross section
oblique section
cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and vertical planes. Not used much.
Abdominopelvic Regions & quadrants
9 regions used primarily by anatomists. 4 quadrants are used primarily by medical personnel.
umbilical region
centermost region deep to and surrounding the umbilicus (navel)
epigastric region
located superior to the umbilical region (upper middle of nine regions)
hypogastric region
located inferior to the umbilical region (hypo=below)
right & left iliac or inguinal region
located lateral to the hypogastric region (iliac = superior part of the hip bone)
right & left lumbar region
lie lateral to the umbilical region (lumbus = loin)
right & left hypochondriac regions
flank the epigastric region laterally (chondro = cartilage)