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320 Cards in this Set

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Exaggerated over-curvature of thoracic area of vertebral column
Kyphosis
Lateral deviation of vertebral column
Scoliosis
Major feature of cervical vertebrae
Transverse foramina
Structure which regionally determines vertebral movement
Facet joints
Vertebra located at level of iliac crest
L4
Ligament that connects internal surface of laminae of vertebrae
Ligamentum flavum
Ligament that checks hyperextension of vertebral column
Anterior longitudinal
Ligament affected by whiplash injury
Anterior longitudinal
Ligament which limits skull rotation
Alar
Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in cervical area
Pedicle
Defective portion of vertebra with spondylolisthesis in lumbar area
Pars interarticularis, Lamina
Common direction of all superior articular facets of vertebrae
Posterior
Structure in contact with posterior surface of dens
Transverse ligament of atlas (part of cruciate)
Most commonly herniated intervertebral disc
L4-5
Most common nerve compressed with herniated intervertebral disc
L5
Spinal nerve affected by protrusion of the disc between C5/6
C6
Spinal nerve affected with herniated disc at L3/L4
L4
Thoracic intercostal space located deep to triangle of auscultation
sixth
Vertebral level of lumbar puncture
L4
Muscles which extend and side-bend the spine
Erector spinae
Muscles which extend, ROTATE, and side-bend the spine
Transversospinae
Innervation of suboccipital muscles
Suboccipital nerve (Dorsal ramus C1)
Roof of suboccipital triangle
Semispinalis capitis
Floor of suboccipital triangle
Posterior arch of atlas; posterior atlanto-occipital membrane
Major vessel within suboccipital triangle
Vertebral artery
Synonym for dorsal ramus of C2
Greater occipital nerve
Inferior extent of dura-arachnoid sac
S2
Inferior extent of spinal cord
L2
Location of internal vertebral plexus
Epidural space
Most frequently fractured bone of body
Clavicle
Most frequently dislocated carpal bone
Lunate
Most frequently fracture carpal bone
Scaphoid
Osseous structure palpated deep to anatomical snuff box
Scaphoid
Fracture of distal radius that produces "dinner fork" appearance
Colle's fracture
Nerve injured with fracture of surgical neck of humerus
Axillary
Nerve injured with fracture of shaft of humerus
Radial
Nerve injured that results in wrist drop
Radial
Nerve injured with fracture of medial humeral epicondyle
Ulnar
Muscle that is the chief flexor and chief extensor at shoulder joint
Deltoid
Muscles innervated by axillary nerve
Deltoid and teres minor
Muscle that initiates abduction of arm
Supraspinatus
Most commonly torn tendon of rotator cuff
Supraspinatus
Two muscles that rotate scapula for full abduction of arm
Trapezius and serratus anterior
Tendon that courses through shoulder joint
Long head of biceps
Chief supinator muscle of hand
Biceps brachii
Primary (major) flexor of the forearm
Brachialis
Orientation of structures located in the cubital fossa-Lateral to Medial
Tendon biceps brachii, brachial a., median n.
Injury to what nerve causes winged scapula
Long thoracic nerve
Spinal levels of axillary nerve
C5 and C6
Spinal levels of innervation to muscles of the hand
C8 and T1
Dermatome of thumb
C6
Nerve to thenar compartment
Recurrent branch of Median
Innervation of adductor pollicis
Ulnar (deep br.)
Innervation to all interosseous muscles
Ulnar (deep br.)
Innervation to nail bed of middle finger
Median nerve
Innervation to nail bed of ring finger
Ulnar and median
Region affected by upper trunk injury of brachial plexus (C5-C6)
Shoulder
Region affected by lower trunk injury of brachial plexus (C8-T1)
Intrinsic hand muscles
Nerve compressed with carpal tunnel syndrome
Median
Nerve affected by cubital tunnel syndrome
Ulnar
Paralysis of which muscles results in total "claw" hand
Lumbricals
Boundaries of femoral triangle
Inguinal ligament, sartorius, adductor longus
Structure immediately lateral to femoral sheath
Femoral nerve
Structure immediately medial to femoral artery in femoral sheath
Femoral vein
Contents of femoral canal
Deep inguinal lymph nodes
Medial boundary of femoral ring
Lacunar ligament
Structures that course throughout entire length of adductor canal
Femoral artery and vein
Structures that course through only portion of adductor canal
Saphenous nerve, nerve to vastus medialis, descending genicular vessels
Muscle that forms floor of popliteal fossa
Popliteus
Muscle that is chief flexor at hip joint
Iliopsoas
Muscle that prevents pelvis from tilting when walking
Gluteus medius
Nerve affected when pelvis tilts to unsupported side during gait
Superior gluteal n.
Muscles which extend the thigh and flex the leg
Hamstrings
Muscle that extends leg
Quadriceps femoris
Specific muscle that holds patella in place
Vastus medialis
First portion of quadriceps femoris to atrophy with injury to femoral nerve
Vastus medialis
Last portion of quadriceps femoris to recover following injury
Vastus medialis
Muscle that unlocks knee joint
Popliteus
Muscle affected with foot slap
Tibialis anterior
Major spinal cord level of nerve affected causing foot slap
L4
Chief invertors of foot
Tibialis anterior and posterior
Chief evertors of foot
Fibularis longus and brevis
Ligament that checks backward displacement of femur on tibia
Anterior cruciate
Ligament laxity with positive valgus maneuver
Medial collateral
Most commonly injured ankle ligament
Anterior talofibular
Ligament stretched with "flat foot"
Plantar calcaneonavicular (spring)
Joints for movements of inversion and eversion
Subtalar and transverse Tarsal
Major artery to head of femur in adult
Medial femoral circumflex
Nerve affected with fracture of head and neck of fibula
Common fibular
Tendon affected with avulsion fracture of 5th metatarsal
Fibularis brevis
Innervation of adductor magnus
Obturator, tibial portion of Sciatic
Nerve affected with tarsal tunnel syndrome
Tibial
Cutaneous innervation to medial side of foot
Saphenous (L4)
Cutaneous innervation to lateral side of foot
Sural (S1)
Cutaneous innervation of heel
Tibial
Cutaneous innervation to dorsal aspect of web between toes 1 and 2
Deep fibular
Cutaneous innervation of most of dorsum of foot
Superficial fibular
Major dermatome to big toe
L4
Dermatome to small toe
S1
Spinal level of patellar reflex
L4
Spinal level of Achilles reflex
S1
Locking of knee when walking suggests
Meniscus injury
Major injury triad with lateral impact to knee
Medial collateral, medial meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament
Dermatome around nipple
T4
Vertebral level at inferior angle of scapula
T7
Structure that lies immediately posterior to manubrium
Thymus
Vertebral level associated with sternal angle
Disc between T4-5
Rib related to oblique fissure of lung posteriorly
2nd
Rib paralleled by horizontal fissure of right lung
4th
Inferior extent of lung at mid-clavicular line
6th rib
Inferior extent of pleura at mid-clavicular line
8th rib
Inferior extent of lung at mid-axillary line
8th rib
Inferior extent of pleura at mid-axillary line
10th rib
Inferior extent of lung posteriorly
10th rib
Inferior extent of pleura posteriorly
12th rib
Innervation of costal pleura
Intercostal nerve
Innervation of mediastinal pleura
Phrenic nerve
Level where ascending aorta is continuous with arch of aorta
T4-5
Level where arch of aorta is continuous with descending aorta
T4-5
Effect of sympathetic nerves on lungs
Bronchodilation, Vasoconstriction
Effect of parasympathetic nerves on lungs
Bronchoconstriction, Vasodilation
Rationale for aspirated small objects to go to right primary bronchus
Wider diameter, shorter and more vertical
Needle location for therapeutic pleural tapping
Superior to 12th rib, posteriorly
Name given to portion of right ventricle prior to beginning of pulmonary trunk
conus arteriosum or infundibulum
Site for auscultation of pulmonary valve
Left 2nd interspace
Site for auscultation of aortic valve
Right 2nd interspace
Site for auscultation of tricuspid valve
Xiphisternal joint
Site for auscultation of mitral valve
Left 5th interspace, mid-clavicular line
Heart chamber with greatest sternocostal projection
Right ventricle
Chamber that forms apex of heart
Left ventricle
Major chamber that forms base of heart
Left atrium
Heart chamber that contains moderator band
Right ventricle
Ridge located between sinus venarum and right ventricle
Cristae terminalis at the root of the SVC
Artery that determines coronary dominance
Posterior interventricular
Usual origin of SA and AV nodal arteries
Right coronary artery
Location of SA node
Cristae terminalis
Major vessel that drains the musculature of the heart
Coronary sinus
Innervation of fibrous pericardium
Phrenic nerve
Most common cause of systolic ejection murmur
Aortic stenosis
Rib associated with sternal angle
Second rib
Location of ductus arteriosus
Between left pulmonary artery and aorta
Nerve potentially injured with repair of patent ductus arteriosus
Left recurrent laryngeal Nerve
Veins that unite to form brachiocephalic
Subclavian and internal Jugular
Veins that unite to form superior vena cava
Right and left Brachiocephalic
Termination of azygos vein
Superior vena cava
Structures that lie to right and left of thoracic duct
Azygos veins, aorta
Spinal levels of greater splanchnic nerve
T5-9
Spinal levels of lesser splanchnic nerve
T10-11
Spinal levels of least splanchnic nerve
T12
Thoracic structures that can compress the esophagus
Left bronchus, aorta and Diaphragm
Disease often associated with thymoma
Myasthenia gravis
Dermatome to umbilical area
T10
Dermatome to suprapubic area
L1
Vertebral level associated with origin of celiac artery
T12
Vertebral level associated with origin of SMA
L1
Vertebral level associated with origin of renal arteries
L2
Vertebral level associated with origin of gonadal arteries
L2
Vertebral level associated with origin of IMA
L3
Vertebral level of umbilicus
Disc L3-4
Vertebral level of aortic bifurcation
L4
Vertebral level for formation of IVC (junction of iliac veins)
L5
Spinal levels to muscles of anterior abdominal wall
T7 - L1
Structure that forms superficial inguinal ring
Aponeurosis of external oblique
Structure that forms deep inguinal ring
Transversalis fascia
Structure that forms floor of inguinal canal
Inguinal ligament
Bony attachments of inguinal ligament
ASIS and pubic tubercle
Structures that form conjoint tendon
Internal oblique and transversus abdominis
Abdominal layer continuous with external spermatic fascia
External oblique
Abdominal layer continuous with cremasteric fascia
Internal oblique
Abdominal layer continuous with internal spermatic fascia
Transversalis fascia
Structure that lies between protrusion sites of direct and indirect inguinal hernias
Inferior epigastric vessels
Type of hernia that enters deep inguinal ring
Indirect inguinal
Most common type of hernia
Indirect inguinal
Most common side for indirect inguinal hernia
Right
Type of hernia that protrudes through Hesselbach's triangle
Direct inguinal
Boundaries of Hesselbach's triangle
Inguinal ligament, rectus abdominis, inferior epigastric artery and vein
Type of hernia that traverses both deep and superficial rings
Indirect inguinal
Condition in which fluid accumulates in processus vaginalis
Hydrocele
Communication between greater and lesser sacs
Epiploic foramen
Superior border of epiploic foramen
Caudate lobe of liver
Inferior border of epiploic foramen
Part one of duodenum
Posterior border of epiploic foramen
IVC
Ligament that contains portal vein, hepatic artery and bile duct
Hepatoduodenal (lesser omentum)
Structure that limits spread of ascitic fluid superiorly from left paracolic gutter
Phrenicocolic ligament
Structure that limits spread of ascitic fluid inferiorly from right infracolic compartment
Root of the mesentery
Superior extent of right paracolic gutter
Hepatorenal recess
Most inferior portion of peritoneal cavity
Rectouterine pouch
Structures supplied by celiac artery
Stomach, duodenum, liver, spleen,gallbladder, pancreas
Branches of celiac artery
Left gastric, common hepatic and splenic
Blood supply to stomach
Right and left gastroepiploics, right, left and short gastric
Major structures of bed of stomach
Pancreas, spleen, left kidney and suprarenal gland, diaphragm
Ducts that join to form common bile duct
Cystic and common hepatic
Structure that separates right and left lobes of liver
Falciform ligament
Remnant of umbilical vein
Round ligament of liver
Origin of cystic artery
Right hepatic artery
Ribs directly related to spleen
Ribs 9-11
Organs related to spleen
Stomach, colon, left kidney, tail of pancreas
Artery to small intestine
SMA
Organs supplied by both celiac and SMA
Duodenum, pancreas
Organs supplied by both SMA and IMA
Transverse colon
Vessel located posterior to head of pancreas
IVC
Vessel located posterior to neck of pancreas
Portal vein
Veins that unite to form portal vein
Splenic and SMV
Clinically important organs for portacaval anastomoses
Esophagus, rectum, liver, spleen
Two structures that lie posterior to SMA near its origin
Left renal vein, duodenum
Three distinguishing features of the large intestine
Tenia coli, haustra, epiploic appendages
Termination of left gonadal vein
Left renal vein
Termination of right gonadal vein
Inferior vena cava
Location of initial pain of appendicitis
Umbilical region
Motor innervation of diaphragm
Phrenic
Sensory innervation of diaphragm
Phrenic + intercostal
Spinal levels of phrenic nerve
C3-5
Vertebral level that inferior vena cava traverses diaphragm
T8
Vertebral level that esophagus traverses diaphragm
T10
Structures that traverse diaphragm with esophagus
Vagal trunks
Vertebral level that aorta traverses diaphragm
T12
Structure that traverses diaphragm with aorta
Thoracic duct
Structure that traverses diaphragm through crura
Greater, lesser and least splanchnic nerves
Structure that separates pelvis from perineum
Pelvic diaphragm
Two major components of pelvic diaphragm
Levator ani and coccygeus
Two major components of levator ani
Pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus
Two muscles which close lateral pelvic wall
Obturator internus and piriformis
Means by which obturator internus exits pelvis
Lesser sciatic foramen
Means by which piriformis exits pelvis
Greater sciatic foramen
Innervation of detrusor
Pelvic splanchnics (S2-4)
Innervation of trigone
Sympathetics (Pregang. T11-L2; lesser, least, lumbar splanchnic nn.)
Innervation of sphincter urethrae
Pudendal n. (S 2,3,4)
Remnants of umbilical arteries
Medial umbilical ligaments
Provides major vasculature to pelvic organs
Internal iliac
Chief artery to rectal mucosa
Superior rectal
Chief artery to rectal muscular wall
Middle rectal
Most common type of pelvic inlet in females
Gynecoid
Two remnants of gubernaculum in females
Ovarian and round ligament
Ligament that contains ovarian vessels
Suspensory ligament of ovary
Cavity into which ova immediately escape the ovary
Peritoneal
Lymphatic drainage for ovary and testes
Lumbar nodes (para-aortic)
Normal position of uterus
Anterverted, anteflexed
Name given to orientation where uterus and vagina intersect at angle of 90 degrees
Anteversion
Name given to orientation where uterine body and cervix intersect at angle of 10-15 degrees
Anteflexion
Chief uterine support
Pubococcygeus
Ligament that contains uterine vessels
Lateral cervical
Structure potentially injured with hysterectomy
Ureter
Relation of ureter to uterine artery
Inferior and posterior
Structure that separates deep and superficial perineal spaces
Perineal membrane
Bony landmarks between anal and UG triangles
Ischial tuberosities
Structure forming lateral wall of ischioanal fossa
Fascia of obturator Internus
Structure that forms the pudendal canal
Fascia of obturator Internus
Structure that separates internal and external hemorrhoids
Pectinate line
Lymphatic drainage for area superior to pectinate line of anal canal
Internal iliac, inferior mesenteric nodes
Lymphatic drainage for area inferior to pectinate line of anal canal
Superficial inguinal nodes
Lymphatic drainage for glans penis
Deep inguinal nodes
Muscle which compresses the bulb of penis
Bulbospongiosus
Muscle which compresses the crus of penis
Ischiocavernosus
Nerves of erection
Pelvic splanchnic, nervi erigentes (S 2,3,4)
Muscles which meet at the perineal body
Superficial and deep perineal, bulbospongiosus, external anal sphincter, pubococcygeus
Major structure of deep perineal space
Sphincter urethrae
Vertebral level of hyoid bone
C3
Vertebral level of thyroid cartilage
C4,5
Vertebral level of cricoid cartilage
C6
Muscles that are innervated by CN XI
Trapezius, SCM
Structures that course between anterior and middle scalene
Brachial plexus, subclavian artery
Innervation of omohyoid, sternohyoid and sternothyroid
Ansa cervicalis (C1-3 ventral rami)
Innervation of digastric
Anterior belly = CN V, Posterior belly = CN VII
Innervation of carotid sinus and carotid body
CN IX, CN X
Major structures to pass through pharyngeal wall superior to superior constrictor
Auditory tube, levator veli palatini
Nerves of pharyngeal plexus
CN IX (mucosa), CN X (musculature), Sympathetics (vasomotor)
Only muscle innervated by CN IX
Stylopharyngeus
Structures that pierce thyrohyoid membrane
Internal laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal artery
Only muscle to abduct vocal cords
Posterior cricoarytenoid
Innervation of cricothyroid
External laryngeal nerve
Innervation of laryngeal muscles exclusive of cricothyroid
Recurrent laryngeal
Muscle that increases tension on vocal cords
Cricothyroid
Sensory nerve to larynx superior to vocal cords
Internal laryngeal
Sensory nerve to larynx inferior to vocal cords
Recurrent laryngeal
Site of aspirated lodged fishbone
Piriform recess
Afferent and efferent limbs of gag reflex
CN IX - CN X
Afferent and efferent limbs of cough reflex
CN X - CN X
Nerve at risk when performing thyroidectomy
Lt & Rt recurrent laryngeal nerves
Nerve injury that causes hoarseness following thyroid surgery
Recurrent laryngeal
Chief structures that traverse internal acoustic meatus
CN VII and VIII
Foramen where CN VII exits skull
Stylomastoid foramen
Major arterial supply to calvaria and supratentorial dura
Middle meningeal
Major cutaneous nerve of face
CN V
Major artery to internal structures of head
Maxillary
Spinal levels of sympathetic fibers to head
T1 - 2
Autonomic ganglia for CN III
Ciliary
Sensory ganglia for CN VII
Geniculate
Autonomic ganglia for CN VII
PPG (Pterygopalatine ganglion) and submandibular
Autonomic ganglia for CN IX
Otic
Muscle attached to disc of TMJ
Lateral pterygoid
Muscle that retracts mandible
Temporalis
Major nerve to TMJ (pain)
Auriculotemporal (V3)
Specific nerves that elicit secretion from the parotid gland
Tympanic branch of CN IX and lesser petrosal
Branch of CN V that carries parasympathetics to parotid
Auriculotemporal (V3)
Structure that opens into superior meatus of nasal cavity
Posterior ethmoid sinus
Structures that open into middle meatus of nasal cavity
Frontal, maxillary, anterior and middle ethmoid sinuses
Structure that opens into inferior meatus of nasal cavity
Nasolacrimal duct
Major artery to nasal cavity
Sphenopalatine
Most common site of nose bleed
Kiesselbach's plexus
Innervation of levator veli palatini
CN X
Muscle that opens auditory tube
Tensor veli palatini
Innervation of tensor veli palatini
CN V3
Nerve that provides taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue
Chorda tympani
Site of cell bodies for nerve that carries taste to anterior 2/3 of tongue
Geniculate ganglion
Specific nerve that elicits secretion from submandibular gland
Chorda tympani
Branch of CN V that carries parasympathetic to submandibular
Lingual
Nerve injured when tonsilar pillars sag and uvula deviates
CN X
Nerve potentially injured with tonsillectomy
CN IX
Muscle that protrudes tongue
Genioglossus
Nerve injured when deviation of protruded tongue
Ipsilateral CN XII
Specific nerve that stimulates tear production
Greater petrosal CN VII
Sensory nerve to cornea
CN V1 (nasociliary)
Muscle that elevates and abducts eye
Inferior oblique
Muscle that depresses and abducts eye
Superior oblique
Site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicits dilation of pupil
Lateral horn, T1 - 2
Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicits dilation of pupil
Superior cervical ganglion
Site of preganglionic nerve cells that elicits constriction of pupil
Edinger-Westphal
Site of postganglionic nerve cells that elicits constriction of pupil
Ciliary ganglion
Innervation of external surface of tympanic membrane
Auriculotemporal(V3),CN X
Innervation of internal surface of tympanic membrane
CN IX