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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles
Both origin & insertion are within larynx
Resp for making fine vocal adjustments
Adductors -
- lateral cricoarytenoid
- transverse arytenoid
- oblique arytenoid
Abductors -
- posterior cricoarytenoid
- glottal tensors (cricothyroid with pars recta and pars oblique, and thyrovocalis)
- glottal relaxers (thyromuscularis)
Intrinsic adductor laryngel muscles (3)
Lateral cricoarytenoids
Transverse arytenoid
Oblique Arytenoids
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Lateral Cricoarytenoids
paired muscle
O = superior lateral side of cricoid cartilage
I = muscular process of arytenoids
Func = adduct the vocal folds
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Transverse arytenoid
Unpaired muscle
O = lateral margin of posterior side of arytenoids
I = same
Func = adduct the vocal folds
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Oblique arytenoids
paired muscle
O = posterior base of muscular process of one arytenoid
I = apex of other arytenoid
Func = adduct the vocal folds
Intrinsic Abductor Laryngeal Musccles (4)
Posterior cricoarytenoid
Glottal tensors
- Cricothyroid (pars recta and pars oblique)
- Thyrovocalis
Glottal relaxer
- Thyromuscularis
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Posterior Cricoarytenoids
paired muscle
O = posterior cricoid
I = muscular process of arytenoid
Func = abduct the vocal folds (when they come together the vocal folds get blown apart)
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Cricothyroid
Glottal tensor
abducts the vocal folds
on anterior side
Pars recta (medial)
- O = anterior side of cricoid
- I = thyroid lamina
Pars Oblique (lateral)
pulls thyroid down and stretches vocal folds
When vocal folds contract, pitch goes up
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Thyrovocalis
Glottal tensor
abducts the vocal folds
paired muscle
basically is vocal folds
O = thyroid cartilage below thryroid notch
I = vocal process of arytenoids
Thyromuscularis + thyrovocalis
abduct the vocal folds
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Thyromuscularis
glottal relaxer
Abduct the vocal folds
also part of vocal folds (more lateral)
When contracts relaxes the vocal folds
O = thryoid cartilage
I = muscular process of arytenoids
Extrinsic laryngeal muscles
Laryngeal elevators (6)
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Digastricus
anterior and posterior
Extrinsic laryngeal elevator
- O = inner side of mandible
- I = post digastic and hyoid bone
- O = mastoid process
- I = meets up with ant digastric and hyoid bone
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Sytlohyoid
Extrinsic laryngeal elevator
O = styloid process
I = hyoid bone
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Mylohyoid
Extrinsic laryngeal elevator
O = underside of mandible
I = hyoid bone
Func = elevates larynx and hyoid bone
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Geniohyoid
Extrinsic laryngeal elevator
Superior to mylohyoid
O = mandible
I = hyoid
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Genioglossus
Extrinsic laryngeal elevator
O = mandible
I = tongue
Func = raises hyoid bone
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Hyoglossus
Extrinsic laryngeal elevator
o = hyoid bone
I = tongue
Func: raises the hyoid bone
Extrinsic Laryngeal depressors (4)
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Sternohyoid
Extrinsic laryngeal depressor
O = sternum
I = hyoid bone
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Omohyoid
Extrinsic Laryngeal depressor
Superior & Inferior bellies
O = scapula & part of hyoid
I = hyoid
Superior origin = hyoid
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Thyrohyoid
Extrinsic laryngeal depressor
O = Thyroid
I = hyoid bone
Origin, Insertion, & Function of Sternothyroid
Extrinsic laryngeal depressor
O = sternum
I = thyroid
Nonspeech vs speech function
Speech is an overlay function (there are 2 purposes to some parts of speech mechanism)
Nonspeech predates speech
Nonspeech parts
Coughing - to clear objects from trachea, vocal folds close tightly, build pressure, open with force
Throat clearing = similar to coughing, less violent, vocal folds are adducted
Both of these irritate the vocal folds
Therapeutic effects: to train vocal folds to work, to examine psychogenic voice - if person can clear their throat, they have a voice
Abdominal fixation
When you hold your breath and your vocal folds adduct, you create a stable part for other muscles to push against
Vocal fold position during strenuous exercise
abduct more widely
When you jump into cold water, your vocal folds abduct
(drinking alcohol suppresses this reflex)
Swallowing, vocal folds adduct to avoid food going down the trachea
Speech component - 3 stages of phonation
Vocal attack
Sustained phonation
Terminate phonation
Vocal attack
How vocal folds come together for phonation
3 kinds
- simultaneous = vocal folds adduct at same time they start phonating, like when using voiced consonants ("zoo")
- Breathy = vocal folds adduct but they're still slightly abducted ("Michael Jackson")
- Hard glottal = start off adducted, but they blow apart to start, like in 1st sounds
Sustained phonation
When vocal folds start to adduct, as they start to vibrate, hold vocal folds together ("say ah")
Terminate phonation
Abduct vocal folds just enough to stop vibration (end of "ah")
Vocal register
series of notes or pitches that fall within a scale
3 primary vocal registers
Glottal fry ("pulse")
Modal vocal register
most common, one we talk at
fundamental frequency (one that we hear)
Men 130 Hz, Women 230 Hz
2 methods of vocal fold movement:
- vertically (open and close inferiorally first)
- anterior-posterior (open from posterior, close from anterior)
Glottal fry vocal register
"pulse" register
below modal register
30 - 90 Hz
Pulsating sound (like with a tracheotomy)
Falsetto vocal register
3rd highest vocal register
highest for men
"mickey mouse" voice
Whistle vocal register
as high as 2500 Hz
only for women