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69 Cards in this Set

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pectoantebrachialis
Origin: manubrium of the sternum
Insertion: Flat tendon into the superficial fascia of the antebrachium above the elbow
Action: Draws the forelimb toward the midline
pectoralis major
Origin: Cranial half of the sternum and midventral raphe
Insertion: Proximal two-thirds of the shaft of the humerus
Action: Draws the forelimb toward the midline and turns the manus forward
pectoralis minor
Origin: From the six sternebrae and sometimes the xiphoid process, resulting in the appearance of several slips that appear to be separate muscles
Insertion: Ventral border of the humerus
Action: Draws the forelimb toward the midline
xiphihumeralis
Origin: Median raphe in the vicinity of the xiphoid process
Insertion: Along the ventral border of the humerus
Action: Synergistic with the pectoralis minor in drawing the forelimb toward the midline
external oblique
Origin: Lumbodorsal fascia and the last 9 or 10 ribs
Insertion: Median raphe of distal portion of sternum and linea alba from sternum to pubis
Action: Compresses the abdominal region
internal oblique
Origin: Lumbodorsal fascia in common with the external oblique, and dorsal iliac border
Insertion: Linea alba in common with the external oblique and transversus abdominis
Action: Compresses the abdomen
transversus abdominis
Origin: From the costal cartilages of the posterior ribs, transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae and ventral border of the ilium
Insertion: Linea alba in common with the two obliques
Action: Compresses the abdomen
rectus abdominis
Origin: Pubis
Insertion: First and second costal cartilage and proximal end of sternum
Action: Compresses the abdominal region, pulls sternum and ribs caudally, causing flexion of the trunk
serratus ventralis
Origin: From the surface of the first 9 or 10 ribs and the transverse processes of the last five cervical vertebrae
Insertion: Vertebral border of the scapula
Action: Draws the scapula tooward the thoracic wall and helps to support the scapula
scalenes
Origin: From the second through the ninth ribs
Insertion: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae
Action: Bends the neck and pulls ribs caudally
transversus costarum
Origin: From the side of the sternum
Insertion: First rib and costal cartilage
Action: Pulls the ribs cranially
intercostalis externus
Origin: From a cranial rib
Insertion: To an adjacent caudal rib
Action: Protracts the ribs
intercostalis internus
Origin: From a caudal rib
Insertion: To an adjacent cranial rib
Action: Retracts the ribs
serratus dorsalis
Origin: From the middorsal fascia
Insertion: On the outer surface of the ribs
Action: Anterior portion draws the ribs cranially while the posterior portion draws the ribs caudally
clavotrapezius
Origin: Lambdoidal ridge, middorsal raphe over spine of the axis
Insertion: Clavicle and raphe between clavotrapezius and clavobrachialis
Acton: protracts the humerus
clavobrachialis
Origin: Clavicle and raphe between clavotrapezius and clavobrachialis
Insertion: Commonly inserted with the brachialis on the medial surface of the ulna distal
Action: Flexes the forearm
acromiotrapezius
Origin: Middorsal line from the spine of the axis to the spinous process of the fourth thoracic vertebra
Insertion: Metacromion process and spine of the scapula
Action: Adduct and stabilize the position of the scapulae
spinotrapezius
Origin: May originate from the spinous processes of most of the thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: Fascia of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles on either side of the spine
Action: Pulls the scapula dorsally and caudally
latissimus dorsi
Origin: Neural spines of the fourth or fifth thoracic to the sixth lumbar vertebrae
Insertion: Medial surface of humerus at the proximal end
Action: Pulls forelimb dorsocaudally
multifidus spinae
Origin: Primarily transverse processes of vertebrae:
Insertion: Neural spines of more anterior vertebrae
Action: When both sides contract simultaneously, extends the vertebral column; when contracted unilaterally, bends the vertebral column toward that side
longissimus dorsi
Origin: From the ilium and neural spines of the vertebrae in the vertebral column
Insertion: Onto various processes of more anterior vertebrae of the vertebral vertebrae
Action: Extends the vertebral column
spinalis dorsi
Origin: From the neural spines of more posterior thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: Transverse processes of more cranial vertebrae
Action: Extends the vertebral column
iliocostalis
Origin: Lateral surface of the ribs
Insertion: Onto the lateral surface of more cranial ribs
Action: Pulls the ribs together
sternomastoid
Origin: Cranial end of the manubrium
Insertion: Lambdoidal ridge and mastoid portion of the temporal bone
Action: As a pair - flexion of the head; individually - turns the head
cleidomastoid
Origin: Mastoid process of the temporal bone
Insertion: Clavicle
Action: When clavicle is stationary - turns the head; when head is stationary - moves the clavicle anteriorly
sternohyoid
Origin: First costal cartilage
Insertion: Hyoid bone
Action: Retracts the hyoid
sternothyroid
Origin: First costal cartilage
Insertion: Thyroid cartilage of the larynx
Action: Retracts the larynx
thyrohyoid
Origin: lateral portion of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx
Insertion: Hyoid bone
Action: Protracts the larynx
stylohyoid
Origin: Sylohyal, a segment of the lesser horn of the hyoid
Insertion: Body of the hyoid
Action: Elevates the hyoid
mylohyoid
Origin: Medial surface of the mandible
Insertion: Median raphe
Action: Elevates the floor of the mouth
geniohyoid
Origin: Ventral surface of the mandible
Insertion: Body of the hyoid
Action: Protracts the hyoid
genioglossus
Origin: Ventral surface of the mandible near the symphysis and dorsal to the geniohyoid
Insertion: Tongue
Action: Draws tip of the tongue backward and the root forward
hyoglossus
Origin: Body of the hyoid
Insertion: Tongue
Action: Retracts and depresses the tongue
styloglossus
Origin: Mastoid process
Insertion: Tongue
Action: Retracts and elevates the tongue
rhomboideus capitis
Origin: Lambdoidal ridge
Insertion: Dorsal border of the scapula
Action: Rotates and pulls scapula cranially
rhomboideus cervicis and thoracis
Origin: Vertebral spines of the first four thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: Vertebral border and outer surface of the scapula
Action: Adducts scapulae
splenius
Origin: Midorsal line of neck and adjacent fascia
Insertion: Along the lambdoidal ridge of the occipital bone
Action: The joint action of the left and right splenius muscles elevate or extend the head; individually, each muscle flexes the head laterally
semispinalis cervicis and capitis
Origin: Spinous processes of cervical vertebra 7 and the first three thoracic vertebrae/prezygapophyses of cervical vertebrae 3-7 and first three thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: Lambdoidal crest
Action: Elevates the head
masseter
Origin: From the zygomatic arch
Insertion: Masseteric fossa and adjacent portions of the mandible
Action: Elevation of mandible
temporalis
Origin: Most fibers originate from the temporal bone and a few from the zygomatic arch
Insertion: Coronoid process of the mandible
Action: Elevates mandible
digastric
Origin: From the mastoid and jugular processes
Insertion: Medial ventral border of the mandible
Action: Depresses the mandible
supraspinatus
Origin: From the entire surface of the supraspinous fossa
Insertion: Greater tuberosity of the humerus
Action: Protracts the humerus
infraspinatus
Origin: From the surface of the infraspinous fossa
Insertion: Lateral surface of the greater tuberosity of the humerus
Action: Rotates the humerus laterally
teres major
Origin: Cranial border of the scapula
Insertion: Proximal end of the humerus
Action: Flexes and rotates the humerus medially
levator scapulae ventralis
Origin: By two heads from the ventral surface of the transverse process of the atlas and from the basioccipital near thte tympanic bulla
Insertion: The two heads unite, forming a flat band that inserts onto the ventral border of the metacromion of the scapula and into the infraspinous fossa
Action: Pulls scapula craniad
acromiodeltoid
Origin: Acromion of the scapula
Insertion: Surface of the spinodeltoid muscle
Action: Flexes the humerus and rotates it laterally
spinodeltoid
Origin: Spine of the scapula
Insertion: Deltoid ridge of the humerus
Action: Synergistic action with the acromiodeltoid in flexing the humerus and rotating it outward
teres minor
Origin: Cranial border of the scapula near the glenoid fossa
Insertion: Greater tuberosity of the humerus
Action: Synergistic action with the infraspinatus in rotating the humerus laterally
subscapularis
Origin: Subscapular fossa
Insertion: Lesser tuberosity of the humerus
Action: Adducts the humerus
epitrochlearis
Origin: From the lateral border of latissimus dorsi
Insertion: By a thin aponeurosis continuous with the antebrachial fascia onto the olecranon of the ulna
Action: Acts synergistically with the triceps brachii in extending the antebrachium
biceps brachii
Origin: By a tendon above the glenoid fossa of the scapula
Insertion: By a tendon on the radial tuberosity
Action: Flexes the forearm synergistically with the brachialis; tends to supinate the manus; and stabilizes the shoulder joint
triceps brachii
Origin: (1) Lateral head-deltoid ridge of proximal end of humerus; (2) Long head-near glenoid fossa of axillary border of scapula; (3) medial head-consists of three parts, all of which originate from the humerus
Insertion: By a common strong tendon onto the surface of the olecranon of the ulna
Action: Extends the forearm
sartorius
Origin: Crest and ventral border of the ilium
Insertion: Patella, tibia, and fascia of the knee
Action: Adducts and rotates the femur; extends the shank
gracilis
Origin: Symphysis of the ischium and the pubis
Insertion: A thin aponeurosis on the medial surface of the tibia and continuous with the facia of the shank
Action: Adducts and retracts the leg
biceps femoris
Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Tibia and patella
Action: Abducts thigh and flexes the shank
caudofemoralis
Origin: Transverse process of second and third caudal vertebrae
Insertion: Thin tendon along the lateral border of the patella
Action: Abducts the thigh and extends the shank
semitendinosus
Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Tibia
Action: Flexes the shank
semimembranosus
Origin: Ischial tuberosity and adjacent area of the ischium
Insertion: Medial epicondyle of the femur and adjacent medial surface of the tibia
Action: Extends the thigh
tensor fascia latae
Origin: Ilium, fascia of surrounding hip muscles
Insertion: By fascia lata. The fascia lata on the surface of the patella
Action: Helps to extend the shank
vastus medialis
Origin: Femur
Insertion: Crosses the patella and inserts by means of the patellar ligament on the tibial tuberosity
Action: Extends the shank
rectus femoris
Origin: Ilium near the acetabulum
Insertion: Crosses the patella and inserts by means of the patellar ligament on the tibial tuberosity
Action: Extends the shank
vastus lateralis
Origin: Greater trochanter and adjacent area of the femur
Insertion: Crosses the patella and inserts by means of the patellar ligament on the tibial tuberosity
Action: Extends the shank
vastus intermedius
Origin: Femur
Insertion: Crosses the patella and inserts by means of the patellar ligament on the tibial tuberosity
Action: Extends the shank
tibialis cranialis
Origin: Proximal end of the tibia and the fibula
Insertion: Medial surface of the first metatarsal after passing beneath the extensor retinaculum
Action: Flexes the pes
extensor digitorum longus
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of the femur
Insertion: The tendon, after passing under the extensor retinaculum, inserts on the dorsal surface of the second and third phalanges of digits 2-5
Action: Extends the digits
flexor digitorum longus
Origin: Fibula and tibia
Insertion: A common, broad tendon dividing into four discrete tendons that insert on the base of the terminal phalanx of each toe
Action: Flexes toes and pes
gastrocnemius
Origin: (1) Patella, the superficial fascia of the shank, the sesamoid bone located above the lateral epicondyle of the femur, and an aponeurosis from the plantaris and adjacent tibia. (2) The medial head originates from the sesamoid bone above the medial epicondyle and adjacent area of the femur
Insertion: By means of a common powerful tendon, the Achilles tendon, formed by the individual tendons of the gastrocnemius, the soleus, and the plantaris muscles, that inserts on the proximal end of the calcaneus
Action: Extends the pes
gluteus maximus
Origin: Last sacral and first caudal vertebrae, as well as adjacent fascia
Insertion: Greater trochanter of the femur
Action: Abducts the thigh
gluteus medius
Origin: Crest and lateral surface of the ilium, last sacral and first caudal vertebrae and adjacent fascia
Insertion: Greater trochanter of the femur
Action: Abducts the thigh