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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
tranverse mesodern is located _______ to the buccopharyngeal membrane and forms the __________ cavity and ________________ mesoderm.
cephalad; pericardial; cardiogenic
single spaces develop in the lateral plate mesoderm and coalesce to form what?
intraembryonic coelom
what is the composition of the somatopleure?
somatic mesoderm and overlying ectoderm
what is the composition of the splanchnopleure?
splanchnic mesoderm and underlying endoderm
at the edge of the embryonic disc, the somatopleure and splanchnopleure join which cellular layer which has been covering the amnion and yolk sac?
extraembryonic mesoderm
originally the intraembryonic coelom is an open cavity, continuous with which other cavity?
extraembryonic coelom
what does folding do to the intraembryonic coelom?
it converts it to a closed cavity
the lateral edges of the embryonic disc meet and fuse to constrict the neck of what?
yolk sac
somatopleure gives rise to what? Splanchnopleure?
body wall and serous lining; gut tube and serous lining
during the 4th week, the intraembryonic coelom is subdivided by three partitions into 3 body cavities. Name these 3 cavities:
pericardial cavity, peritoneal cavity, pericardioperitoneal cavities (2) aka pleural cavities
what is the name for the block-like wedge of mesoderm located cranial to the primordial heart?
septum transversum
as the forebrain enlarges, what happens to the septum transversum?
it is translocated onto the ventral surface of the embryo where it is caudal to the heart
the septum transversum attaches ventrally and laterally to what? It attaches dorsally to what?
body wall; mesencyhme associated with the foregut
the septum transversum separates the intraembryonic coelom into which portions?
superior and inferior
what is the name of the superior portion of the intraembryonic coelom? Is it located ventral or dorsal to the developing heart?
what are the names for the communications between the primitive pericardium and peritoneal cavities?
pericardioperitoneal canals
what is the destiny of the septum transversum in the adult?
central tendon of the diaphragm
during which week does the primitive pericardial cavity divide? Into what does it divide?
5th week; ventral definitive pericardial cavity and two dorsolateral pleural cavities
in the coronal plane, the _______________ folds grow in from the ___________ body wall toward the midline and fuse with each other and with the _______________ around the ______________.
pleuropericardial; lateral; mesoderm; esophagus
the origins of the pleuropericardial folds migrate anteriorly or posteriorly? In doing so, they form which cavities?
anteriorly; definitive pericardial and right and left pleural
the dorsolateral pleural cavities are continuous with which other cavity? Through which structures?
peritoneal cavity; pericardioperitoneal canals
the pleuropericardial folds are how many layers? To what do they give rise?
3; serous pericardium, fibrous pericardium, and parietal pleura
on either side of the midline of the ventral body wall, msesnchyme condenses into what structures?
sternal bars
do the sternal bars fuse together at the cephalic or caudal end and the distal or proximal end meets with the ribs
cephalic; distal
in which direction do the sternal bars zip?
failure of fusion of the ribs results in what? What can protrude?
cleft sternum; heart
the septum transversum becomes fixed ventrally at which vertebral level? Dorsally?
T7; T12
to what is the septum transversum fixed dorsally?
mesenchyme of the esophagus
which embryonic structures form the bulk of the diaphragmatic muscle?
pleuroperotineal membranes
which feature of the septum transversum helps to pull phrenic nerves into diaphragm?
to which two structures do the pleuroperitoneal membranes fuse?
dorsal mesentery of the esophagus and septum transversum
the dorsal mesentery of the esophagus condenses to form what? From where do these originate? What are their names?
two muscular bands; upper vertebral bodies; left and right crura of the diaphragm
where do the right and left crura of the diaphragm cross? Which one surrounds the esophagus?
anterior to the aorta; right
which mesoderm layer helps to form the diaphragm?
paraxial mesoderm
by which spinal nerves is the paraxial mesoderm of the diaphragm innervated?
which structures bring the phrenic nerves medially from their position in the body wall?
developing pleuropericaldial folds
from which germ layer does the respiratory diverticulum originate?
the respiratory diverticulum gives rise to which 3 structures?
epithelium of trachea, bronchi, and alveoli
the respiratory tree is enveloped in periesophageal splanchnopleuric mesoderm which gives rise to what?
cartilage, connective tissue, blood vessels and muscle of the bronchi and lungs
as the lung bud expands caudally, the communication with it and the foregut is partially closed by what?
two longitudinal tracheoesophageal ridges
what is the name for the structure formed by the fusion of the two tracheoesophageal ridges?
tracheoesophageal septum
how does the respiratory portion of the lung bud maintain contact with the larynx?
laryngeal orifice
the epithelial lining of the larynx has its origin in which germ layer?
cartilage and muscle of the larynx come from where? By which nerves are they innervated?
mesenchyme of the 4th and 6th laryngeal arches; vagus
what controls the branching of the lung buds?
epithelial-mesenchyme interactions
how many primary bronchial buds are formed? Secondary?
2 (L/R lungs); 3 on right, 2 on left
the lung buds expand into the body cavity by growth in which 2 directions?
caudal and lateral
the pleuropericardial folds and pleuroperitoneal membranes separate the pleural cavities from what?
pericardial and abdominal cavities
what percentage of adult alveoli are present at birth?
for how many years of your life are you still developing alveoli?
10 years
what is the name of the area of the embryo marked by the oropharyngeal membrane to the level of the outpouching of the respiratory diverticulum?
is the esophagus proximal or distal to the pharynx in the embryo?
what is the embryonic origin of the parietal pleura? Visceral pleura?
somatic mesoderm; splanchnic mesoderm
what occurs in a tracheoesophageal fistula?
the trachea and esophagus do not completely separate and remain fused
what is the clinical term for when the diaphragm does not close completely and the peritoneal contents leak up into the thorax?
congenital diaphragmatic hernia