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78 Cards in this Set

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masseter
helps with chewing movements, Action is to raise the mandible. Prime mover of raising the mandible

(i)origin: is the zygomatic arch

(ii)insertion: at the angle of the ramus of the mandible.
temporalis
(i)Origin: the temporalis fossa (an indentation between parietal and temporal bones)

(ii)Insertion: the coronoid process of the mandible

(iii)Function: raises and retracts the mandible. It is a synergist in raising the mandible
lateral pterygoid muscle
lowers mandible and is fan shaped
1. origin: is pterygoid process of the sphenoid and the great wing of the sphenoid
2. insertion: the mandibular condyle
3. function: when contracts it pull forward on the mandibular condlye and makes it pivot, making mandible go lower
medial pterygoid muscle
raises mandible, synergist for the masseter.

1. Muscle comes off the pterygoid process of the sphenoid and something about angle, ramus mandible
buccinator
(i)Origin: alveolar processes of maxilla and mandible

(ii)Insertion: the obicularis oris

(iii)Function: compress cheeks and lips together
sternocleidomastoid
(a) origin is the sternum and clavicle
(b) insertion: the mastoid process of the temporal bone
(c) Function:
(i) contraction of a single muscle – flex cervical vertebrae laterally toward the side of contraction
(ii) Contraction of both muscles- flex cervical vertebrae anteriorly (head goes downward) aka: anterior flexion
splenius capitis
a deep muscle and has two branches (left and right side)

(a)broad origin: spinous processes of 7th cervical through the 4th thoracic vertebrae (includes vertebrae 1-4) and nuchal ligament

(b)insertion: the occipital and mastoid process

(c)Function:
(i)contraction on one side- the head is rotated toward the side of contraction.

(ii)When both contract – flex cervical vertebrae posteriorly and extends head (extention of the head – head goes backwards)
levator scapulae
there are two muscles, one on each side

(a)Origin: first 4 cervical vertebrae

(b)Insertion: the superior angle of the scapula

(c)Function: when it contracts it pulls upward and caused elevation of scapula, scapula moves toward head
rhomboideus major
(i)origin: 2-5 thoracic vertebrae

(ii)insertion: the vertebral border of the scapula

**Function: both muscles elevate (raise) the scapula, adduct the scapula and pull it toward the midline and laterally rotate the scapula towards the humerus
rhomboideus minor
(i) origin: 7th cervical through 1st thoracic vertebrae
(ii) Insertion: the vertebral border of the scapula at the spine
**Function: both muscles elevate (raise) the scapula, adduct the scapula and pull it toward the midline and laterally rotate the scapula towards the humerus
pectoralis minor
antagonist to Rhomboideus

(a)Origin: 3,4,5 ribs

(b)Insertion: the coracoid process of the scapula

(c)Function: depress scapula and move it toward the feet, when it contracts it pulls on the coracoid process which pulls the scapula down
serratus anterior
(a)Origin:1-8th ribs

(b)Insertion: the vertebral border of the scapula

(c)function: moves scapula towards humerus, away from midline. Moves scapula away from midline (abduction) and to move it towards the chest
trapezius
(a)origin: occipital bone, nuchal ligament, 7th cervical and all thoracic vertebrae

(b)insertion: the clavicle, acromion and the spine of the scapula

(c)Functions:

Whole muscle contraction- adducts the scapula and pulls it toward the midline.

Upper portion contraction- extends head (pulls head backwards)

Middle portion contraction- elevates scapula (synergistic action)

Lower portion contraction- depresses scapula (lowers it, synergist of pectoralis minor)
coracobrachialis
(i)origin: coracoid process

(ii)insertion: middle of humerus

(iii)Function: prime mover of flexion of arm
pectoralis major
synergist for flexion (coracobrachialis)

(i)Origin: clavicle, sternum and first 6 costal cartilages

(ii)Insertion: the greater tubercle of the humerus
teres major
prime mover for extension of arm
(i)Origin: interior angle of the scapula
(ii)Insertion: the lesser tubercle of the humerus
(iii)Function: moves are downward and backward
latissumus dorsi
synergist for teres major (extension of arm)
(i)Origin: 6-12th thoracic vertebrae, lumbo-dorso fascia (fascia at the small of the back) and the iliac crest
(ii)Insertion: the bicipital groove of the humerus
(iii)Function: it pulls the humerus out of the flex position and goes backward from the anatomical position
deltoideus
prime mover of abduction of arm
(i)Origin: clavicle, acromion and spine of the scapula
(ii)Insertion: the deltoid tuberosity of the humerus
supraspinatus
– synergist of abduction of arm(of the deltoideus)
(i)origin: supraspinous fossa
(ii)Insertion: on the greater tubercle of the humerus on the posterior side
teres minor
a.origin: axillary border of the scapula
b.Insertion: the greater tubercle of the humerus (posterior side of the greater tubercle)
infraspinatus
(i)origin: infraspinous fossa
(ii)Insertion: the greater tubercle of the humerus on the posterior side
biceps brachii
(PM for flexion when hand supinated hand is moved toward shoulder)
(i)origin: coracoid process of the scapula and upper border of the glenoid cavity
(ii)Insertion: the radial tuberosity
brachialis
PM when the hand is pronated, back of hand touch shoulder then pushed down so palm is facing ground
(i)Origin: mid humerus
(ii)Insertion: the coracoid process of the ulna
brachioradialis
PM for flexion when hand is semi-supinated (ROTC position)

(i)Origin: distal humerus

(ii)Insertion: the styloid process of radius
triceps brachii
(i)Origin: lateral and medial heads of proximal humerus and long head of the axillary border of the scapula

(ii)Insertion: olecranon process of the ulna (pull on ulna and cause tension)

(iii)Function: movement of the forearm
flexor carpi radialis
(a) Origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus

(b)Insertion: 2nd metacarpal

(c)Function: flex lateral side of wrist
palmaris longus
(a)Origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus

(b)Insertion: the tendon inserts on a band of white fibrous connective tissue called flexor retinaculum of wrist

(c)Function: flex middle of wrist
flexor carpi ulnaris
(a)Origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus and the olecranon of the ulna

(b)Insertion: 5th metacarpal

(c)Function: flex medial side of wrist
extensor carpi radialis longus
(i)Origin: distal humerus

(ii)Insertion: 2nd metacarpal
extensor carpi radialis brevis
(i)Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus

(ii)Insertion: 3rd metacarpal
extensor carpi ulnaris
(i)Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus
(ii)Insertion: 5th metacarpal
extensor digitorum communis
(i)Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus
(ii)Insertion: distal phalanges of fingers
(iii)Function: extend fingers and extend hand at wrist
supinator
(i)Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus on the posterior side of the limb and also the proximal ulna
(ii)Insertion: anterior proximal radius
(iii)Function: pulls radius back to anatomical position
pronator quadratus
(i)Origin: distal ulna
(ii)Insertion: distal radius
pronator teres
(i) Origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus and coronoid process of the ulna
(ii) Insertion: middle radius lateral edge
(iii) Function: move hand to face floor, pulls radius over ulna so it goes from supinated position hand upward to hand downward
flexor digitorum profundus
(a)Origin: proximal ulna, common tendon – 4 tendons the one to each distal phalange of the fingers
(b)Function: curls fingers
flexor pollicis longus
(i)origin: proximal to middle radius
(ii)insertion: distal phalange thumb
(iii)function: pulls thumb toward the head, in forearm
flexor pollicis brevis
(i)origin: flexor retinaculum: 1st carpal
(ii)insertion: proximal phalange thumb
(iii)location: this is just in the hand or wrist
extensor pollicis longus
1.origin: middle ulna
2.insertion: distal phalange thumb
extensor pollicis brevis
1.origin: middle radius
2.insertion: proximal phalange thumb
abductor pollicis longus
1.origin: middle radius and middle ulna
2.insertion: 1st metacarpal (not phalange), inserts on the side
abductor pollicis brevis
1.origin: flexor retinaculum
2.insertion: proximal phalange of the thumb
adductor pollicis
1.origin: 1st carpal, 2nd and 3rd metacarpal – goes to bone at a 90 degree angle
2.insertion: proximal phalange the thumb
3.function: bring thumb back to anatomical position
psoas major
1.origin: transverse process of the lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5, all lumbar)
2.insertion: lesser trochanter of the femur
iliacus
fan shaped
1.origin: iliac crest
2.insertion: lesser trochanter of the femur
gluteus maximus
1.origin: iliac crest, sacrum and coccyx
2.insertion: posterior femur, fascia lata (broad band of CT on the lateral side of the thigh) or iliotibial tract
gluteus medius
1.origin: lateral surface of the ilium
2.insertion: greater trochanter of the femur
gluteus minimus
1.origin: lateral surface of the ilium
2.insertion: greater trochanter of the femur
tensor fascia latae
1.origin: lateral iliac crest
2.Insertion: fascia lata or iliotibial tract (lateral condyle of the tibia?)
3.Function: produces tension on lateral side of thigh for posture (main function). But with lots of tension it can move femur laterally
adductor magnus
1.origin: inferior pubic ramus, inferior ischial ramus and ischial tuberosity
2.insertion: linea aspera of the femur
3.function: pulls femur back to midline
adductor longus
1.origin: pubic crest and pubic symphysis
2.insertion: linea aspera of the femur
3.function: pulls femur toward the midline
adductor brevis
1.origin: inferior pubic ramus
2.insertion: posterior medial of the femur (close to linea aspera but not exactly same place)
3.function: pull femur back to midline
pectineus
1.origin: superior pubic ramus
2.insertion: linea aspera of the femur
3.function: pulls femur back to midline
biceps femoris long head
a.origin: ischial tuberosity
b.insert at the head of the fibula.
c.Action: pulls thigh upward and backward on the lateral side of the leg
biceps femoris short head
a.origin: linea aspera of the femur
b.insert at the head of the fibula.
c.Action: pulls thigh upward and backward on the lateral side of the leg
semitendinosus
1.origin: ischial tuberosity
2.insertion: proximal and medial tibia
semimembranosus
1.origin: ischial tuberosity
2.insertion: medial condyle of the tibia
gracilis
1.origin: pubic symphysis
2.insertion: proximal medial tibia
3.action: it moves the tibia, flexion of the leg and adduction of the thigh
rectus femoris
1.origin: anterior inferior iliac spine
2.insertion: patellar tuberosity
vastus lateralis
1.origin: linea aspera and the greater trochanter
2.insertion: patellar tuberosity
sartorius
(i)origin: anterior superior iliac spine
(ii)insertion: proximal medial surface of the tibia
(iii)action: pulls leg backward and the thigh upward
vastus medialis
1.origin: linea aspera
2.insertion: patellar tuberosity
vastus intermedius
1.origin: anterior femur
2.insertion: patellar tuberosity
gastrocnemius
(i)origin: lateral medial condyle of the femur
(ii)insertion: calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon) and inserts on the calcaneus
soleus
(i)origin: proximal regions of the tibia and fibula
(ii)insertion: forms tendon then inserts on the calcaneus
tibialis anterior
(i)origin: lateral condyle of the tibia
(ii)insertion: 1st tarsal and the 1st metatarsal
peroneus tertius
(i)origin: distal fibula
(ii)insertion: 5th metatarsal
peroneus longus
(i)origin: head of the fibula
(ii)insertion: 1st metatarsal and 2nd tarsal
peroneus brevis
1.origin: mid fibula
2.insertion: 5th metatarsal
tibialis posterior
(i)origin: proximal tibia and fibula and then forms a tendon
(ii)insertion: forms tendon which then splits to go to many locations including: proximal tarsals and 2,3,4 metatarsals
flexor digitorum longus
(i)origin: proximal tibia
(ii)insertion: a tendon is formed then goes under bones of foot and splits into 4 tendons that then insert on the distal phalanges of the 4 toes
flexor digitorum brevis
(i)origin: calcaneus
(ii)insertion: 4 tendons come from calcaneus and then insert on the middle phalanges of the 4 toes
flexor hallucis longus
(i)origin: proximal surface of the fibula
(ii)insertion: distal phalange of the big toe
flexor hallucis brevis
(i)origin: tarsals
(ii)insertion: small tendon that inserts on the proximal phalange of the big toe
extensor digitorum longus
(i)origin: lateral conduyle of the tibia and proximal fibula (both high in the leg)
(ii)insertion: the muscle gives off a single tendon that then breaks into 4 tendons that go to the middle and distal phalanges of the 4 toes (extends toes all at the same time)
extensor digitorum brevis
(i)origin: calcaneus
(ii)insertion: it is four small muscles that then go to the same insertion point as the extensor digitorum longus
extensor hallucis longus
(i)origin: middle of the fibula
(ii)insertion: muscle forms tendon that then inserts on the distal phalange of the big toe
extensor hallucis brevis
(i)origin: calcaneus
(ii)insertion: proximal phalange of the big toe