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35 Cards in this Set

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Endomysium
The thin connective tissue surrounding each muscle cell
Perimysium
The connective tissue enveloping bundles of muscle fibers
Epimysium
The sheath of fibrous connective tissue surrounding a muscle
Tendon
Cord of dense fibrous tissue attaching a muscle to a bone
Apeneurosis
Fibrous or membranous sheet connective a muscle and the part it moves
Sarcomeres
Contractile units
Fascicle
Bundle of fibers
Action potential
An electrical event occurring when a stimulus of sufficient intensity is applied to a neuron of a muscle cell, allowing sodium ions to move into the cell and reverse the polarity
Isotonic
muscles shorten and movement occurs
Isometric
Muscles do not shorten, no movement, ex. pushing
Graded response
A response that varies directly with the strength of the stimulus
Muscle tone
Sustained partial contraction of a muscle in response to stretch receptor inputs; keeps the muscle healthy and ready to react
Aerobic exercise
stronger, flexible muscles resistant to fatigue
Resistance exercise
stronger, larger muscles due to larger muscle fibers or cells
Origin
attached to immovable or less movable bone
Insertion
attached to movable bone
prime mover
muscle with major responsibility for movement
Antagonists
Muscles that oppose or reverse a movement
Synergist
Muscles that help prime movers by reducing undesirable or unnecessary movements
Fixators
Specialized synergists that hold a bone still or stabilize origin of prime mover so all tension can be used to move insertion bone
Flexion
decreased the angle of the joint and brings two bones closer together (bending knee or elbow)
Extension
increases the angle or distance between two bones or parts of the body (straightening the knee or elbow)
Rotation
Movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis. Common of ball and socket joints (shake head no)
Abduction
Moving a limb away from the midline, or median plane, of the body (fanning of fingers or toes)
Adduction
Movement of a limb toward the body midline
Circumduction
Combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction commonly seen in ball and socket joints such as the shoulder. The proximal end of the limb is stationary, and the distal end moves in a circle. The limb as a whole outlines a bone.
Dorsiflexion
lifting the foot so that its superior surface approaches the shin
Plantar flexion
depresses the foot (pointing toes)
Inversion
turn the sole of the foot medially
Eversion
turn the sole of the foot laterally
Supination
the forarm rotates laterally so that the palm faces anteriorly and the radius and ulna are parallel
Pronation
the forearm rotates medially so that the palm faces posteriorly. Brings the radius across the until so that the two bones for an X.
Opposition
the action by which you move your thumb to touch the tips of the other fingers on the same hand
How do muscles get there names? (7)
1. Direction of muscle fibers
2. Relative size of muscle
3. Location muscles
4. Number or origins
5. Location of origin and insertion
6. Shape of muscle
7. Action of muscle
How to muscle change as we age?
The connective tissue in the muscles increases and the amount of muscle tissue decreases, which means that the muscle become more sinewy and stringier. Body weight declines as the loss of muscle mass occurs. The muscle strength also decreases.