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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Compare vertebral bodies of C, T, L vertebrae
CERVICAL - small, wider side to side then anterioposteriorly
THORACIC - heart shaped, one or two costal facets articulations
LUMBAR - massive, kidney shaped
Compare vertebral foramen - C, T, L vertebrae
CERVICAL - large and triangular
THORACIC - circular and smaller then cervical
LUMBAR - triangular, larger then thoracic but smaller then cervical
Compare TP - C, T, L vertebrae
CERVICAL - small or absent in C7, has vertebral arteries and sympathetic plexus EXCEPT C7 that only has vertebral veins
THORACIC - long and strong, extend posteriolaterally, length decreases from T1 to T12 (T1-T10 have costal articulating facets)
LUMBAR - long and slender, articulating processes on posterior base of process
Articular processes - compare C, T, L vertebrae
CERVICAL - Superior facets are directed superior and posterior, inferior facets are directed inferior and lateral
THORACIC - superior facets are posterior and slightly lateral, inferior facets are anterior and medial
LUMBAR - superior facets are medial and slightly posterior, inferior facets are anterolateral
Spinous processes - compare C, T, L vertebrae
CERVICAL - C3-C5 bifid, C6 short, C7 = vertebra prominens

THORACIC - long, slope posteroinferiorly - rule of 3s

LUMBAR - short and sturdy, hatchet shaped
Name primary spinal curvatures
THORACIC AND SACRAL - kyphosis, develop during fetal period, exaggerated kyphosis - " hump back"
Name secondary spinal curvatures
LUMBAR AND CERVICAL - lordosis, only start to be seen during infancy, exaggerated lordosis - "hollow back" - due to anterior rotation of pelvis and hips
Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine with the rotation of the vertebrae. Can be due to weakness of intrinsic back muscles, failure of half of the vertebra to develop properly or difference in lenght of the lower limb
Movements of thoracic vertebral bodies
- Attach to ribs and provide stability for ribs to attach to sternum - ALLOW ROTATION, LIMIT EXTENSION AND FLEXION
Movements of lumbar vertebral bodies
Allow flexion, extension and side bending - LIMIT ROTATION
Zygapophyseal joints limit _
Anterior and posterior sliding of vertebrae
Which ligament prevents hyperextension
Anterior longitudinal spinal ligament
Posterior longitudinal spinal ligament
Thin and serrate ligament to prevent hyperflexion
Ligamentum flavum
Located between lamina, contains elastic fibers, extends from edge of C2 to sacrum. Ligamentum flavum has intrinsic "recoil memory" to allow for flexion to return to extension
Interspinal ligament
Between spinous processes
Supraspinal ligament
Strong fibrous ligament that merges with nuchal ligament
Nuchal ligament
Thickened fibroelastic ligament from external occipital protuberance and posterior foramen magnum to spinous process of cervical vertebrae, also substitutes for bone in spinous processes C3-C5
Movement of AO joint
YES movement
Movement of AA joint
NO movement
What gives AA joint major stability
Transverse ligament - provides stability and allows skull to pivot on C2
Which ligament limits rotation at AA joint
ALAR Ligament - from skull to foramen magnum. Limits rotation, if you tear it can increase rotation by 30 degrees
Blood supply of column and spinal cord
SAME- blood from aorta and arteries such as intercostals flows into vertebral column, supplied by 3 spinal arteries - 2 posteriorly and 1 anteriorly
Venous drainage of spinal cord and column
Batsons plexus
Advantages and disadvantages of Batsons plexus -

GOOD - brain needs low venous pressure and high arterial pressure

BAD - metastatic cells from prostate cancer spread through this
Spina bifida occulta
Lamina fail to develop normally and fuse posterior to vertebral canal. Defect is concealed by skin and sometimes covered with tuft of hair
Bone spurs in the area of vertebral joints that compress spinal nerves coming from spinal cord. Often cause positive Babinski, loss of vibration sense, paresthesias or paresis of upper limb, ankle clonus and weakness of lower limb witnessed by circumduction of leg in walking
Spinal stenosis
Narrows spinal canal due to enlargement of inferior articular processes on superior vertebra - intervertebral foramen are shrunk, intervertebral discs are compressed and nerve root is compressed as it comes out of intervertebral foramen. Back is flat or convex with loss of normal lordosis
Defect in pars interarticularis which makes vertebra unstable and prone to damage. On x ray it looks like collar on Scottie dog image. Most common cause of spondylolisthesis
Anteroposterior translatory movement of two vertebrae toward each other. Most commonly occurs between L5 and S1 and on x ray it looks like Scottie dog is decapitated in the neck region (between articular facets)
Rupture of anterior longitudinal ligament occurs how
In hyperextension injury - whiplash injury - only ligament protecting against hyperextension
Ruptured or herniated disks occur most commonly where
L4-L5 or L5-S1
Herniated dsk
Protrusion of nucleus pulposus through annulus fibrosus into intervertebral foramen or into vertebral canal compressing spinal nerve root, commonly occurs posterolaterally when annulus fibrosus is not reinforced by posterior longitudinal ligament and frequently affects lumbar region