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75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the 3 compartments of the thorax?
2 pleural cavities and 1 mediastinum
what is the superior border of the mediastinum?
superior thoracic aperture
what is the inferior border of the mediastinum?
what is the lateral border of the mediastinum?
pleural cavities and lungs
what is the anterior border of the mediastinum?
what is the posterior border of the mediastinum?
thoracic vertebrae
the mediastinum is divided into inferior and superior portions by which two landmarks (anterior and posteior)?
anteriorly - sternal angle, posteriorly - disc between T4-5
the inferior portion of the mediastinum if divided into which 3 sections? Which helps to define these sections?
anterior, middle, posterior; pericardium
is the thymus located in the anterior or posterior part of the mediastinum?
the thymus is invoved in the formation of what in childhood? It is replaced by what in adulthood? To what does it lie anteriorly?
immune system; fat; great vessels and pericardium
what is the major organ of the mediastinum?
which 2 types of layers surround the heart to compose the pericardium?
fibrous and serous layers
the superior vena cava is formed by the covergence of which two veins?
left and right brachiocephalic veins
the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava dump into which chamber of the heart?
right atrium
the ascending aorta arises from which chamber of the heart? Which two arteries are IMMEDIATELY given off by the aortic arch? Which tissue do these supply?
left and right coronary arteries; heart
does the ascending aortic arch to the left or right? Posteriorly or anteriorly? What is the name given to this bending aorta?
left and posteriorly; aortic arch
what are the 3 arterial branches that the aortic arch gives off?
brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries
at which vertebral level does the aortia arch become the descending (thoracic) aorta?
where does the descending branch of the aorta travel?
down the anterolateral aspect of the vertebral column on the left side of the body
what is the landmark that defines the beginning and end of the aortic arch?
transverse thoracic plane (T4-5)
the pulmonary trunk arises from which chamber of the heart? Into which arteries does it bifurcate?
right ventricle; left and right pulmonary arteries
which vessels are responsible for bringing oxygenated blood back from the lungs to the left atrium? How many of these vessels are present? Into which chamber do they empty?
pulmonary veins; 4; left atrium
during fetal circulation, the ductus arteriosis connects which two cardiac structures?
pulmonary trunk and aortic arch
what is the function of the ductus arteriosus?
to bypass the non-functioning lungs
at birth, what is the destiny of the ductus arteriosus?
becomes fibrous and turns into ligamentum arteriosus
is the trachea found anterior or posterior to the great vessels in the midline?
at approximately T4-5, into what does the trachea branch?
primary bronchi
is the esophagus located anterior or posterior to the trachea?
how does the esophagus exit the thoracic cavity?
through a hole in the diaphragm (esophageal hiatus)
which, the trachea or the esophagus, is found in both the superior and inferior mediastina?
from where does the phrenic nerve originate?
C3-5 ventral primary rami
how do the phrenic nerves enter the mediastinum? Do they travel anterior or superior to the root of the lung?
through the superior thoracic aperture; anterior
what do the phrenic nerves do for the diaphragm?
provide somatic motor innervation and sensation from pericardium, mediastinal pleura, and diaphragmatic pleura
from where does the vagus nerve arise? Near which arteries in the neck do the vagus nerves travel?
brainstem; carotid arteries
where do the vagus nerves enter the thoracic cavity? How does the right vagus nerve travel down the trachea? The left vagus nerve?
near the superior thoracic aperture; lateral aspect of the trachea; anterolateral surface of the aortic arch
do the vagus nerves travel anterior or posterior to the root of the lung?
the vagus nerves enter a plexus on which organ?
the vagus nerve provides sympathetic or parasympathetic innervation? Which aspects of the thorax are innervated by the vagus nerve? Via which plexuses?
parasympathetic; heart, bronchial tree, esophagus; cardiac, pulmonary, esophageal plexuses
afferent fibers in the vagus nerve in involved in what nervous activity?
visceral reflexes
the left recurrent laryngeal is a branch of which important nerve in the thorax?
vagus nerve
from where on the vagus nerve does the left recurrent laryngeal branch leave?
arch of aorta
from its branch at the arch of the aorta, the left laryngeal nerve goes where?
through the aortopulmonary window posterior to the ligamentum arteriosus and ascending back into the neck and along the lateral aspect of the trachea
where is the aortopulmonary window located?
between the arch of the aorta and the left pulmonary artery
what does the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve innervate?
the larynx
compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve via aortic aneurism or other mass can be detected how clinically?
hoarseness of the voice
what path does the right laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve take?
around the subclavian artery in the neck (IT IS NOT IN THE MEDIASTINUM)
what is the name for the largest lymphatic vessel in the body?
thoracic duct
from where does the thoracic duct receive lymph?
the entire lower half og the body and upper left quadrant
into where does the thoracic duct dump?
venous system
in the mediastinum, the thoracic duct travels on the ________ aspect of the thoracic vertebrae on the ______ side of the thoracic aorta.
anterior; right
what is the name for the large group of lymph nodes surrounding the treacheal bifurcation? From where do they receive lymphatic drainage?
tracheobronchial lymph nodes; lungs
what are the names of the two coronary arteries? From where do they branch?
right and left coronary arteries; ascending aorta
the coronary sulcus is a groove between which chambers of the heart?
the ventricles and the atria
where does the right coronary artery exit the ascending aorta? In which coronary sulcus does it travel?
near the tip of the right auricle; right coronary sulcus (between right atrium and ventricle)
what is the name for the first branch of the right coronary artery? To which structure of the heart does it supply blood?
sinuatrial nodal branch; SA node
what is the name for the second branch of the right coronary artery? Where does it travel?
marginal branch; along the inferior margin of the right ventricle
what is the name for the third branch of the right coronary artery? Where does it travel? To what does it supply blood?
posterior interventricular branch; posterior interventricular sulcus; right and left ventricles
by which artery is the AV node supplied with blood? This is a branch of which coronary artery?
AV nodal branch; right coronary artery
where does the left coronary artery originate from the ascending aorta?
posterior to the pulmonary trunk
how soon after branching off the ascending aorta does the left coronary artery bifurcate? Into which two branches does it bifurcate?
immediately; anterior interventricular branch and circumflex branch
what is another name for the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery? Where does this artery travel and to which chamber of the heart does it supply blood?
left anterior descending (LAD); travels in the anterior interventricular sulcus and supplies the left ventricle
the circumflex branch of the left coronary artery travels where?
in the coronary sulcus on the left side of the heart, terminating before reaching the posterior interventricular sulcus.
what is the term used for hearts in which the right coronary artery supplies more blood to the heart than the left coronary artery?
right dominant
in left dominant hearts, which arteries are located on the left side instead of the right?
posterior interventricular artery arises from the circumflex branch
are the anastomoses of the coronary arteries and their branches enough to nourish the tissue if a major branch becomes occluded?
no - this leads to a myocardial infarction
most coronary veins terminate into which vein? On which side of the heart is this located? Into which chamber does it empty?
coronary sinus; posterior; right atrium
what are the names of the 3 most important cardiac veins?
great, middle, and small cardiac veins
where does the great cardiac vein originate? Where does it travel?
near the apex of the heart; in the anterior interventricular sulcus
with which artety does the great cardiac vein travel?
anterior interventricular artery
where does the great cardiac vein enter the coronary sulcus?
near the origin of the anterior interventricular artery
once in the coronary sulcus, with which artery does the great cardiac vein travel to the posterior side of the heart?
circumflex artery
on which side of the heart does the great cardiac vein empty into the coronary sinus?
the middle cardiac vein travels where and with which artery?
posterior interventricular sulcus; posterior interventricular artery
the small cardiac vein travels where and with which artery? What path does it take to the coronary sinus?
along the inferior margin of the heart with the marginal branch of the right coronary artery; along the coronary sulcus
how does blood from the veins surrounding the right ventricle get back to the right atrium?
via small anterior cardiac veins that bypass the coronary sinus