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63 Cards in this Set

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The study of large (gross) structures that can be seen with the naked eye
Gross Anatomy
Microscopic study of cells and tissues
Histology
Groups of cells that are similar in structure and that function together
Tissue
Forms the linings and coverings of free surfaces of the body
Epithelial Tissue
supportive and binding tissue found throughout the body ex: bone, tendons, cartilage
connective tissue
contractile tissue for movement
muscle tissue
communication cells capable of sending impulses
nerve tissue
groups of tissues that work together to perform a common function
organ
a group of organs working together to perform a common function
system
study of the structure of the nervous system
neuroanatomy
study of the developing organism from time of fertilization to birth
embryology
the three layers of embryonic tissue from which all body tissues are derived
germ cell layers
innermost of three germ cell layers. it will form most of the linings of tubular structures of the body
endoderm
outer germ cell layer. derivatives: skin and the nervous system
ectoderm
layer between the endoderm and the ectoderm. derivatives: muscles and connective tissue
mesoderm
compact layers of connective tissue that form a fibrous membrane. it invests the whole body, supporting and separating muscles and organs
fascia
the protein that makes up the fibers in connective tissue structures
collagen
thickened connective tissue that holds muscle to bone
tendons
a broad, flat tendon
aponeurosis
all the structures in an area are studied together, ex: lower extremity includes bones, muscles, nerves and vessels
regional study
studying a complete system independent of region, ex: learning all the bones of the body
systematic (systemic) study
the body is standing erect, face toward observer, with feet together and parallel, the arms at the sides and palms directed forward
anatomical position
refers to the front surface of the body
anterior (ventral)
refers to the back surface of the body
posterior (dorsal)
nearer the head end (vertically)
superior (cranial)
farther from the head end (vertically)
inferior (caudal)
nearer the surface
superficial (external)
farther from the surface
deep (internal)
nearer the mid-plane of the body
medial
farther from the mid-plane of the body
lateral
nearest the point of origin. if used with extremities, closer to the attachment. if used with an organ, closer to the organ
proximal
farthest from the point of origin
distal
mature bone cells
osteocytes
cells that tear down bone
osteoclasts
build new bone
osteoblasts
shaft
diaphysis
found at both proximal and distal ends of long bones
epiphysis
where the epiphysis and the diaphysis fuse after the cartilaginous epiphyseal plate is no longer needed to increase bone length
epiphyseal line
contains red bone marrow in the proximal epiphysis; the blood cell producing red marrow is also found in spongy bone of flat bones
spongy (cancellous) bone (also in distal epiphysis)
the external coat of solid bone
compact bone
fascial covering found on all bones
perioseum
mostly fat. (sometimes seen in the medullary cavity, a space lined with endosteum; some osteoclasts are found here)
yellow marrow
entering nutrient foramen
nutrient artery
the structural unit of most compact bone
the osteon (Haversian system)
for passage of blood vessel
Haversian canal
concentric layers of bony tissue
lamellae
spaces containing osteocytes
lacunae
mature bone cells
osteocytes
connections between lacunae
canaliculi
a roughened bony prominence usually serving as the site of attachment for muscles or connective tissue structures
process
relatively large, blunt type of process found only on the femur
trochanter
a large, blunt or rounded process
tuberosity
a small, blunt or rounded process
tubercle
a pointed projection of bone
spine
a prominent border that may be rough
crest
a saucer-like depression
fossa
a hole in a bone: size is extremely variable
foramen
a rounded articular surface jointed to the shaft of the bone by a constriction, the neck
head
a smooth structure, either concave or convex, joined directly to the shaft of a long bone
condyle
a smooth surface for articulation
facet
the attachment of the lower limb with the axial skeleton
sacroiliac joint
interior to the pelvic brim, the true pelvis is located between the pelvic bones. the false pelvis is the space above the pelvic brim and between the iliac bones
pelvic brim
arm or branch
ramus