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126 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CNS = ?

PNS = ?
Brain & Spinal Chord

12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Where is the CNS 'continuous'?
Foramen Magnum at base of skull
Somatic nervous system =?
N.S. that supplies the body (SOMA), not the internal organs.
Visceral Nervous System = ?
Nervous system that supplies the internal organs (viscera)
Which Motor system provides a sensory and motor component?
Somatic & Visceral.
What is an efferent response?
Motor
A __________ is a junction where one neuron ends on another neuron.
SYNAPSE
Myelin is a __________substance, which is actually part of the _________.
LiPOPROTEIN; CELL MEMBRANE
*****Termination of spinal cord in most adults is ______________.

It is called the __________.
at the disc b/tw L1 & L2 vertebra.

Conus medullaris
In a newborn or fetus, the spinal cord is much lower. At birth the cord ends around ______.
L3
__________spinal nerves are attached to the cord.

The place where these nerves attach is called the ____________.
31 PAIRS OF

Spinal cord segment
There are ______ cervical vertebrae & ____ cervical nerves.
7; 8
There are ____thoracic vertebrae and ____ thoracic nerves.
12; 12
There are ___lumbar vertebrae & _____lumbar nerves.
5; 5
There are ___sacral vertebrae (before fusion) and ___ sacral nerves
5; 5
CNS = ?

PNS = ?
Brain & Spinal Chord

12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Where is the CNS 'continuous'?
Foramen Magnum at base of skull
Somatic nervous system =?
N.S. that supplies the body (SOMA), not the internal organs.
Visceral Nervous System = ?
Nervous system that supplies the internal organs (viscera)
Which Motor system provides a sensory and motor component?
Somatic & Visceral.
What is an efferent response?
Motor
A __________ is a junction where one neuron ends on another neuron.
SYNAPSE
Myelin is a __________substance, which is actually part of the _________.
LiPOPROTEIN; CELL MEMBRANE
*****Termination of spinal cord in most adults is ______________.

It is called the __________.
at the disc b/tw L1 & L2 vertebra.

Conus medullaris
In a newborn or fetus, the spinal cord is much lower. At birth the cord ends around ______.
L3
__________spinal nerves are attached to the cord.

The place where these nerves attach is called the ____________.
31 PAIRS OF

Spinal cord segment
There are ______ cervical vertebrae & ____ cervical nerves.
7; 8
There are ____thoracic vertebrae and ____ thoracic nerves.
12; 12
There are ___lumbar vertebrae & _____lumbar nerves.
5; 5
There are ___sacral vertebrae (before fusion) and ___ sacral nerves
5; 5
There are _____coccygeal vertebrae and ___coccygeal nerves.
4; 1
Where do the spinal nerves originate?
C1-C7-superior to their respective vertebrae.

C8-in between C7 & T1

T1 & below-inferior to their respective vertebrae.
What is the cauda equina?
Long, oblique lumbar, coccygeal, & sacral nerves that exit the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord.
The ______is the termination of the conus medullaris. It is a filament of ________tissue made of pia mater.
Internal Filum Terminale
What causes enlargement of spinal cord?

Where are these enlargements?
Where the origin of nerves (innervating either upper or lower limbs) are attached.

Cervical: C4-T1
Lumbral-Sacral: L2-S3
The dural sac ends at _____.
S2
White matter in the cord is_________.
Mylelinated axons ascending to brain or descending to lower levels of the cord.
Grey matter is made up of ________ and has 2 horns, the _________ & _______.
Cell bodies

Dorsal & Ventral
THe ________ horns contain MOTOR NEURONS.

The ________horns contain SENSORY NEURONS.
Ventral=Motor

Dorsal=Sensory
The motor neurons of the _______ horns supply _______.
Ventral
Skeletal Muscle
The ______neurons of the dorsal horns receive impulses from ______________.
Sensory
Spinal nerves (sensory info)
The LATERAL HORN is found from ____-____.
T1-L2
The LATERAL HORN (found from ___-___) contains cell bodies of autonomic motor neurons. These motor neurons supply _________>
(T1-L2)

Involuntary structures (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, & glands)
Draw the VENTRAL MEDIAN FISSURE.

What is the CENTRAL CANAL?
"crack" in the ventral part of cross section of s.c.

'hole' running through middle of cross section of s.c. (see 8.3.06 lecture slide 12)
Spinal nerves attach to the cord by __________.
DORSAL & VENTRAL ROOTS
The dorsal root (of a spinal nerve) has a swelling on it called the _____. This is abbreviated to the ______.
Ganglion

DRG
THe dorsal roots are ________.

The ventral roots are _______.
Sensory

Motor (movers are at the front ;) )
The united dorsal are very _________ (long or short) and ventral roots can be found in the _______.
Short;

intervertebral foramen
WHen the mixed spinal nerve branches into RAMI, the dorsal and ventral rami are now _________(sensory or motor?).
MIXED
2 kinds of ganglia:
____________ &
_____________.
Sensory & Autonomic (Motor)
Ganglion is a collection of neurons _______ the CNS.
outside
THe grey & white rami communicantes (connecting the ventral ramus and sympathetic trunk) are only found from ____-____. THe other spinal nerves have only ____.

See slide 14 in lecture notes.
T1-L2;

grey (unmyelinated)
THere is no synapse in the ________root ganglia.
DORSAL
The 2 kinds of ganglia are ____ & _______.
Sensory (dorsal) & autonomic (ventral).
Clusters of neurons outside the CNS are ________.
Ganglia
The Autonomic Ganglia can be ________ or _______, but both are still ________ neurons.
Parasympathetic or Sympathetic;

MOTOR
The autonomic ganglia innervate 3 things:
________
________
& _______
Smooth muscle
Cardiac Muscle
Glands
Autonomic ganglia are unique because____________.
It takes 2 neurons to get from CNS to effector organ with a SYNAPSE in the ganglia.
The ______________ run around the body wall and provide inervation to____________.
Ventral root ganglia;
Skin (either laterally by a cutaneous branch, or anteriorly through an anteror cutaneous branch), muscles in the body wall,
The __________________ provide innervation into the deep intrinsic muscles of the back.
Dorsal root ganglia. Erector spinae, etc. to skin of back
There is no synapse in the _________ ganglion.
Sensory
Ventral rami of ________ & ________ combine to form the brachial plexus.
Lower cervical nerves & upper thoracic nerves.
What innervates the limbs?
Ventral Rami!
Ventral rami of _______, & ventral rami of________ combine to form _______ & _______ plexuses respectively, which innervate the lower limb.
Lumbar and Sacral;
Lumbar and Sacral
The brachial plexus provide what kind of innervation to the upper limbs?
Motor AND Sensory
Ventral rami supply everything except _______ & ______.
Deep muscles & skin of back;

Head and neck
Somatic = ___________

Visceral = ___________

(in context of nerve fibers)
Body

Internal organs
General= ___________

Specific = __________

(in context of nerve fibers)
relitavely wide distribution

not widely distributed
Afferent= _____________

Efferent = ____________

(in context of nerve fibers)
Sensory

Motor
GSE (General Somatic Efferent) are motor neurons which supply _________, voluntary muscle.
THey lie in the ______ horn.
skeletal;

ventral
A GSE can go out:
the _____ramus (to intrensic back muscles)
the ______ramus (to any skeletal muscle in body wall or limbs)
Dorsal

Ventral
The _______nervous system innervates smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands.
AUTONOMIC
For GVE, the axon leaves throught the ________root.
The neuron will then synapse, and send unymyelinated fiber up through ______ramus (white or grey).
ventral

grey
In GVE, if the myelinated fiber (white ramus), exits via a ventral ramus, where can it go? (slide 20)
sweat gland in front body wall or in limbs; smooth muscle cell wall of b.v. in ventral lateral body wall
In GVE, if the unmyelinated fiber (grey ramus), exits via a dorsal ramus, where can it go? (slide 20)
Sweat gland in skin on back, smooth muscle cell in wall of b.v. in back
Pre-synaptic fibers travel in _______________ communicans.

Post-synaptic fibers travel in _____________communicans.
WHITE ramus

GREY ramus
GVE fibers that go to smooth muscle and glands of ABDOMINAL viscera synapse in _________ ganglia
PREVERTEBRAL
GVA & GSA fibers lie in the _______________.
Dorsal Root Ganglia
True/False:
GSEs can travel in both dorsal and ventral rami.
TRUE:
They can travel in either rami, but only in the ventral ROOT.
ROOT AND RAMI ARE DIFFERENT: Roots are either motor or sensory, while rami are mixed.
GSAs primarily supply _______ & ___________.
Skin &
proprioceptic fibers coming from skeletal muscles and ligaments
Typical spinal nerves are ___-_____.
T1-L2
Dorsal ROOTS are entirely ______, which means they have ____ & _____ (which 3-letter combination)
sensory;
GVA, GSA
Ventral ROOTS are entirely ______, which means they have ____ & _____ (which 3-letter combination)
motor;
GVE, GSE
The spinal nerve proper is a combination of which 3 letter combinations?
GVA, GVE, GSA, GSE---

The special components only occur in CRANIAL nerves, not spinal nerves.
A _________ is a strip of skin supplied by a single pair of spinal nerves.
DERMATOME
Dermatome ___ supplies the skin around the belly button.
T10
Dermatome ___ supplies the skin around the nipple.
T4
The ________ of spinal nerve C5 innervates the deep back muscles.
posterior ramus
The ________ of spinal nerve C5 innervates the rhomboids and levator scapulae.
dorsal scapular nerve
The ________ of spinal nerve C5 innervates the supraspinatus and infraspinatus.
suprascapular nerve
The ________ of spinal nerve C5 innervates the pectoralis major (clavicular head).
lateral pectoral nerve
The ________ of spinal nerve C5 innervates the teres minor and deltoid.
axillary nerve
The ________ of spinal nerve C5 innervates the biceps brachii and brachialis.
musculocutaneous nerve
The ________ of spinal nerve C5 innervates the brachioradialis and supinator.
radial nerve
The ________ of spinal nerve C5 innervates the subscapularis and teres major.
subscapular nerves
The ________ of spinal nerve C5 innervates the serratus anterior.
long thoracic nerve
The ________ of spinal nerve C5 innervates the subclavius.
nerve to subclavius
A _______ is where ventral rami of adjacent spinal nerves combine and redivide.
nerve plexus
A peripheral nerve (eg radial nerve) usually receives fibers from_________spinal nerve(s).
What does this mean?
more than one

They are going to distribute to areas of the skin that supply more than one dermatome.
There are ____ peripheral nerves with C5 fibers.
3
The 3 peripheral nerves with C5 fibers are the:
__________
___________
_________
Superior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm;
Lateral cutaneous nerve of arm;
Inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm;
Referred pain:
Why does a patient presenting appendicitis feel pain in the periumbilical region (T10 dermatome)?
Sensory fibers from appendix enter the cord through T10 dorsal root & end in that cord segment. So do cutaneous fibers from around the umbilicus. The patient feels the pain in the periumbilical region, even though the pain is in the appendix.
The spinal cord receives its blood supply from _______--2 _______& one ______--which are branches of the _________ artery.
3 longitudinal spinal arteries;

posterior, anterior;

vertebral
The longitudinal spinal arteries are small, so they are supplemented by_________.
Segmental medullary arteries

medullary--medulla (refers to cord)
The segmental medullary arteries arise from the _______, ______, ______, or _______.
vertebral arteries (neck);
intercostal arteries (thorax);
lumbar arteries (abdomen);
lateral sacral areries (pelvis)
The _______ is the largest of all medullary segmental arteries and is super impt. b/c it supplies the ____________.
Great Anterior Segmental Medullary Artery (of Adamkiewicz);
lumbosacral enlargement of the cord
What is the danger of occluding the great anterior segmental medulary a.?
If blood supply to cord is cut off for too long, the patient may become paraplegic.

f.y.i. it is necessary in some surgical procedures to clamp aorta, which cuts off this blood supply
The ___ mater cannot be separated from the cord.
pia
--its a vascular membrane that adheres so closely to the cord that you can't separate it
The dura mater is also known as the _________
pachymenix.
The grooves of the spinal cord that the dura mater follows are called _______.
sulci
The pia and arachnoid are connected by ___________, and together the 2 membranes constitute the ___________.
arachnoid trabeculae;

leptomeninges
The _________ is a tooth-like extention of the pia mater.
Denticulate ligament
The denticulate ligament's function is to ___________, as well as to provide a useful landmark for ____________.
help anchor spinal cord in place;

separating dorsal and ventral nerve roots.
The sac of dura mater and arachnoid end at ________.
S2 vertebral level
________ vertebrae lies at the level of the iliac crest.
L4
The ___________ exits the sacral hiatus and is attached to the dorsum of the _______.
dural extension of the FILUM TERMINALE;
coccyx.
The __________ is the internal vertebral venous plexus, which drains the vertebral cloumn and exit through the ___________
Batson's plexus

intervertebral foramina
The intervertebral venous plexus is __________, which provides a pathway for __________ to spread.
valveless;

cancer or infection
Where is Batson's plexus located?
in the dural space (along with fat, and connective tissue)
The site at which a lumbar puncture must be done between ____ & ____.
L2 & S2
(spinal cord ends at L2, subarachnoid space ends at S2)
In a lumbar puncture, the ________ is entered (the space between L2 & S2). This space contains the CSF
lumbar cistern
THE ________is the dorsal ramus of C2
GREATER occipital n.
THe __________is the dorsal ramus of C1
subocicpital n
The _______ forms the foor of the suboccipital triangle and is pierced by the ______ artery.
posterior atlantococipital membrane;
vertebral
________ cells are myelinated cells in the PNS
Schwann
_____________: an abnormal touch sensation, such as burning, prickling, or formication, often in the absence of an external stimulus.
PARESTHESIA