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191 Cards in this Set

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analogous
feature of two or more organisms that perform a similar function; common function; no common ancestor although they have similar function
clade
a natural evolutionary lineage including an ancestor plus all and only its decscendants
cladogram
a branching dendrogram representing the organization and relationships of clades
dendrogram
a branching diagram that represents the relationships or the history of a group of organisms
derived condition
denoting an organism or species that evolved late within its phylogenetic lineage; advanced; opposite of primitive
extant
living
extinct
dead
heterocercal
having an unequally divided tail, characteristic of sharks, rays, and skates. Upper lobe is larger than the lower and the vertebral column extends into the upper lobe
homocercal
having an equally divided tail, characteristic of adult modern bony fishes; two symmetrical lobes extending from the end of the vertebral column
homologous
feature in two or more organisms derviced from common ancestors; common ancestry; phylogenetic descendants of the same remote ancestor-can be broadly dissimilar morphologically and functionally
homoplasy
feature in two or more organisms that look alike; similar in appearance; similar structural adaptations that are not attributable to homology; not from the same ancestor
macroevolution
evolutionary processes extending through geological eras; large scale evolution of new genera and species owing to mutations resulting in marked changes in chromosome pattern and phenotypes
microevolution
evolutionary processes that can be noticed within a relatively brief period, as during a human lifetime`
monophyletic
a clade, all organisms in a lineage plus the ancestor they have in common, therefore a natural group.
ontogeny
the course of an individuals development from egg (conception) to death;
analogous
feature of two or more organisms that perform a similar function; common function; no common ancestor although they have similar function
clade
a natural evolutionary lineage including an ancestor plus all and only its decscendants
cladogram
a branching dendrogram representing the organization and relationships of clades
dendrogram
a branching diagram that represents the relationships or the history of a group of organisms
derived condition
denoting an organism or species that evolved late within its phylogenetic lineage; advanced; opposite of primitive
extant
living
extinct
dead
heterocercal
having an unequally divided tail, characteristic of sharks, rays, and skates. Upper lobe is larger than the lower and the vertebral column extends into the upper lobe
homocercal
having an equally divided tail, characteristic of adult modern bony fishes; two symmetrical lobes extending from the end of the vertebral column
homologous
feature in two or more organisms derviced from common ancestors; common ancestry; phylogenetic descendants of the same remote ancestor-can be broadly dissimilar morphologically and functionally
homoplasy
feature in two or more organisms that look alike; similar in appearance; similar structural adaptations that are not attributable to homology; not from the same ancestor
macroevolution
evolutionary processes extending through geological eras; large scale evolution of new genera and species owing to mutations resulting in marked changes in chromosome pattern and phenotypes
microevolution
evolutionary processes that can be noticed within a relatively brief period, as during a human lifetime`
monophyletic
a clade, all organisms in a lineage plus the ancestor they have in common, therefore a natural group.
ontogeny
the course of an individuals development from egg (conception) to death;
paraphyletic
an incomplete clade resulting from removal of one or more componenet lineages
phylogeny
the course of evolutionary change within a related group of organisms-evolutionary history of a taxon
phylogenesis
process that produces evolutionary lines
polyphyletic
an artificial group characterized by features that are not homologous.
preadaptation
the concept that features possess the neccessary form and function to meet the demands of a particular environment before the organism experiences that particular environment
primitive condition
denoting an organism or species that appeared early within its phylogenetic lineage-opposite of derived
taxon
named group of organisms; can be natural-accurately depicts a group that exists in nature resulting from evolutionary events; artificial-does not correspond to an actual unit of evolution
sister group
taxon nmost related to the group being studied
hemichordate larva
tornarian larva-ciliated bands on its surface, simple digestive system, planktonic lifestyle
echinoderm larva
auricularia larva-similar to tornaria larva of the hemichordates
ascidian tadpole
larva of urochordate class Ascidiacea; does not feed during its short life as free living member of the plankton before it takes up permanent residence.
cleavage
a rapid series of cell divisions that follows fertilization and produces a multicellular blastula
coelom
the fluid-filled body vacity formed within the mesoderm
deuterostomes
an animal whose anus forms from or near the embryonic blastopore; the mouth forms at the opposite end of the embryo
ectoderm
outer layer of tissue; becomes the nerve cells and skin cells
mesoderm
middle layer of tissue; develops into skeleton; internal organs, vertebrae, and muscles
endoderm
inner layer of tissue; lines inside of guts, stomach, esophagus, trachea, intestines, pancreas (digestive tracts) and bladder
hemichordata
marine worms with links to chordates and echinoderms. Ha e pharyngeal slits and embryonic invagination of the dorsal nerve cord but lack notochord and postanal tail; deuterostomes and similar cleavage and coelom formation
larva
an immature or nonreproductive stage that is morphologically different from the adult
metamorphosis
an abrupt transformation from one anatomically distinct stage (juvenile) to another (adult)
cleavage
a rapid series of cell divisions that follows fertilization and produces a multicellular blastula
notochord
a long axial rod composed of a fibrous connective tissue wall around cells and or a fluid filled space
coelom
the fluid-filled body vacity formed within the mesoderm
pharyngeal slit
an elongated opening in the lateral wall of the pharynx.
deuterostomes
an animal whose anus forms from or near the embryonic blastopore; the mouth forms at the opposite end of the embryo
protochordate
"first" chordates; not a taxonomic group but collection where members share some or all five features of the fundamental chordate body plan; all marine animals that feed by means of cilia and mucus. Pelagic and planktonic as larva and then benthic or sessile as adults. Some dioecious and some are monoecious
ectoderm
outer layer of tissue; becomes the nerve cells and skin cells
protostome
an animal whose mouth forms from or near the embryonic blastopore
mesoderm
middle layer of tissue; develops into skeleton; internal organs, vertebrae, and muscles
urochordata
at some point in their lives they posses all five chordate characteristics; feed on suspended matter through brachial basket; all marine, known as tunicates-with flexible body cover
endoderm
inner layer of tissue; lines inside of guts, stomach, esophagus, trachea, intestines, pancreas (digestive tracts) and bladder
divisions of urochordata
Three taxonomic classes-Ascidiacea, Larvacea and Thaliacea
hemichordata
marine worms with links to chordates and echinoderms. Ha e pharyngeal slits and embryonic invagination of the dorsal nerve cord but lack notochord and postanal tail; deuterostomes and similar cleavage and coelom formation
larva
an immature or nonreproductive stage that is morphologically different from the adult
metamorphosis
an abrupt transformation from one anatomically distinct stage (juvenile) to another (adult)
notochord
a long axial rod composed of a fibrous connective tissue wall around cells and or a fluid filled space
pharyngeal slit
an elongated opening in the lateral wall of the pharynx.
protochordate
"first" chordates; not a taxonomic group but collection where members share some or all five features of the fundamental chordate body plan; all marine animals that feed by means of cilia and mucus. Pelagic and planktonic as larva and then benthic or sessile as adults. Some dioecious and some are monoecious
protostome
an animal whose mouth forms from or near the embryonic blastopore
urochordata
at some point in their lives they posses all five chordate characteristics; feed on suspended matter through brachial basket; all marine, known as tunicates-with flexible body cover
divisions of urochordata
Three taxonomic classes-Ascidiacea, Larvacea and Thaliacea
cleavage
a rapid series of cell divisions that follows fertilization and produces a multicellular blastula
coelom
the fluid-filled body vacity formed within the mesoderm
deuterostomes
an animal whose anus forms from or near the embryonic blastopore; the mouth forms at the opposite end of the embryo
ectoderm
outer layer of tissue; becomes the nerve cells and skin cells
mesoderm
middle layer of tissue; develops into skeleton; internal organs, vertebrae, and muscles
endoderm
inner layer of tissue; lines inside of guts, stomach, esophagus, trachea, intestines, pancreas (digestive tracts) and bladder
hemichordata
marine worms with links to chordates and echinoderms. Ha e pharyngeal slits and embryonic invagination of the dorsal nerve cord but lack notochord and postanal tail; deuterostomes and similar cleavage and coelom formation
larva
an immature or nonreproductive stage that is morphologically different from the adult
metamorphosis
an abrupt transformation from one anatomically distinct stage (juvenile) to another (adult)
notochord
a long axial rod composed of a fibrous connective tissue wall around cells and or a fluid filled space
pharyngeal slit
an elongated opening in the lateral wall of the pharynx.
protochordate
"first" chordates; not a taxonomic group but collection where members share some or all five features of the fundamental chordate body plan; all marine animals that feed by means of cilia and mucus. Pelagic and planktonic as larva and then benthic or sessile as adults. Some dioecious and some are monoecious
protostome
an animal whose mouth forms from or near the embryonic blastopore
urochordata
at some point in their lives they posses all five chordate characteristics; feed on suspended matter through brachial basket; all marine, known as tunicates-with flexible body cover
divisions of urochordata
Three taxonomic classes-Ascidiacea, Larvacea and Thaliacea
amniote
a vertebrate whose embryo is wrapped in an amnion
anamniote
a vertebrate whose embryo lacks an amnion
allantois
an extraembryonic extension of the hindgut of amniote embryos that function in excretion and sometimes in respiration
amnion
a saclike membrane that holds the developing embryo in a compartment of water
blastocoel cavity
The opening into the primitive gut formed at gastrulation-cavity
blastula stage
the early embryonic stage that follows cleavage and consists of a hollow, fluid-filled ball of cells
chorioallantoic membrane
outer allantois and the chorion fuse to form a single composite membrane
chorion
membrane produced from the amniotic folds which eventually fuse at the midline-this is the more peripheral of the two
dermatome
an embryonic skin segment
epimere
made from the lateral sheet of mesoderm that become differentiated- part of the embryonic coelom becomes enclosed in the mesoderm forming the myocoel within the epimere
extraembryonic membrane
pertaining to a structure formed by or around the embryo but not retained by or directly contributing to the adult body
gastrula stage
early embryonic stage during which the basic gut is formed
gastrulation
the process by which the embryo forms a distinct endodermal tube that constitutes the early gut
gastrocoel
the vacity within the early embryonic gut of the gastrula
heterochrony
within an evolutionary lineage, the change in time at which a characteristic appears in the embryo relative to its appearance in a phylogenetic ancestor; usually concerned with the time of onset of sexual maturity relative to somatic development
holoblastic
early mitotic planes pass entirely throug hthe cleaving embryo.
hox genes
all homeotic genes-master gene switches bringing under their command legions of secondary genes responsible in turn for the formation of body parts
hypomere
lateral sheet of mesoderm that becomes differentiated into what is known as lateral plate mesoderm. The coelom or body cavity becomes enclosed in this region
induction
stimulatory effect between developing tissues of the embryo such as the neural tube stimulating proper development of the neighboring sclerotomes
isolecithal
pertaining to an egg in which the yolk is evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm
macrolecithal
pertaining to eggs with large quantities of stored yolk
meroblastic
early mitotic planes that do not complete their passage through the embryo before subsequent division planes form.
mesenchyme
loosely associated cells of mesodermal origin
mesolecithal
pertaining to eggs with moderate amouts of stored yolk
mesomere
lateral sheet of mesoderm that becomes differentiated into what is known as lateral plate mesoderm. The nephrocoel develops within the mesomere or intermediate mesoderm
microlecithal
pertaining to eggs that contain small quantities of stored yolk
morula stage
after fertilization, this is what results-a compact ball of blastomeres within the zona pellucida and with an added exterior mucoid coat. Changes into blastula
myotome
undifferentiated embryonic blocks of presumptive muscles
neural crest cells
a paired strip of tissue that separates from the dorsal edges of the neural groove as if forms the neural tube. Cells from the ectodermal folds fuse to form this distinct population. Become organized initially into cords and then into sheets where they contribute to various organs
neurula stage
stage of embryonic development after the blastula stage
neurulation
process of forming an ectodermal tube called the neural tube. tube is a forerunner of the central nervous system and encloses the neurocoel. Occurs simulataneously with gastrulation
oviposition
the act of laying eggs
paedomorphosis/neoteny
the retention of general juvenile features of ancestors in the late developmental stages of descendants. Larval stages of ancestors become the reproductive "adult" stages of descendants; neoteny-produced by delayed onset of somatic development that is overtaken by normal sexual maturity
parturition
the act of giving birth via viviparity
peramorphosis
the adult characters of ancestors, exaggerated and extended in shape, appear in adults of descendants-arm length in humans-result of prolonged growth in hindlimb length after sexual maturity
placenta
a composite organ formed of maternal and fetal tissues through which the embryo is nourished
sclerotome
originate from clumps of mesoderm called somites that turn into different mesodermal populations-this one gives rise to vertebrae
senescence
loss of physical vigor and reproductive ability-known as aging
somatic mesoderm
the outer wall of the hypomere which later associates with the adjacent ectoderm and becomes the somatopleure
somatopleure
association of the somatic mesoderm and the ectoderm which later produce organs
somite
clefts between the somitomeres that delineate separate condensed clumps of mesoderm-split into various mesodermal populations
splanchnic mesoderm
inner wall of the hypomere that becomes associated with the endoderm to form the splanchnopleure
splanchnopleure
association of the splanchnic mesoderm and adjacent endoderm
telolecithal
pertaining to eggs in which yolk sotres are concentrated at one pole
zygote
youngest stage of embryo-fertilized egg. Develops into the morula, blastula, gastrula, and neurula
cutaneous respiration
gas exchange directly between the blood and the environment via the skin-found in most amphibians; takes place in the capillary beds between the deeper epidermis and the deeper dermis
cuticle
scaly outer surface of the shaft of a hair-the slender keratinous filaments
cycloid scale
type of teleost scale which is made up of only lamellar bone that is acellular and mostly noncalcified. Composed of concentric rings that allow for age determination
dentin
a material that forms theb ulk of the tooth and is similar in structure to bone but harder. Secreted by odontoblasts of nerual crest origin-found in cosmoid scales, but not ganoid or teleost scales, cosmine
dermal armor
made of dermal bone that was found in ostracoderms and placoderm fishes. Now supports the scales of bony fishes and contributes to the skull and pelvic girdle of most vertebrates. Found in the armadillo and in the compound strucutre of the turtle shell
dermal bones
plates of bone made through intramembranous ossification. Named such because of their embryonic origin and initial position. Found in ostracoderms and now in various other species
dermal papillae
the part of the tooth-forming primordium that is derived from neural crest cells, becomes associated with the enamel organ, and differentiates into odontoblasts that secrete dentin
dermis
the skin layer that lies beneath the epidermis and is derived from mesoderm
embryonic induction
stimulatory effect of the dermis upon the epidermis. dermis does not contribute cells of its own to embryonic derivative but induces epidermal specialization-epidermis responds by altering activing of its germinal layer to produce the specified structure
enamel
hardest substance in vertebrates consisting of calcium salts and apatite cristals. Secreted by ameloblasts of epidermal origin, Found in cosmoid and ganoid cells; ganoin
epidermis
the skin layer over the dermis that is derived from ectoderm; in many produces mucus to maintain moisture on the skin surface; in terrestrial vertb it forms an outer keratinized layer through the keratinizing system
erythrophore
one of four types of chromatophores that contains red pigments; chromatophores arise from neural crest and take up residence anywhere in the body
feather follicles
feathers develop embryologically from these invaginations of the epidermis that dip into the underlying dermis. the root associates with the dermal pulp cavity and begins to form the feather.
feathers are elaborate reptilian scales. They are laid out on tracts known as pterylae.
fur/pelage
thick covering of hair generally composed of guard hairs and underfur. Guard hairs are large and coarse and most apparent. Underfur stationed beneath the guard hairs which is usually finer and shorter-insulators
ganoid scale
characterized by the prevalence of a thick surface coat of enamel without an underlying layer of dentin; shiny, overlapping and interlocking and found in living polypteriforms and gars
gastralia
collection of dermal bones in the abdominal area-rib shaped
goblet cell
diverse cell found in bony and cartilaginous fishes but not in lampreys. Contributes to the mucous cuticle in fish
guard hairs
larger coarser hairs that are most apparent on the outer surface of fur that function primarily in insulation.
hair
slender, keratinous filaments that produced by the hair follicle that originates in the dermis but projects through the epidermis-epidermis goes to dermis to form hair follicle
hair cortex
Found beneath the cuticle and around the hair medulla
hair follicle
produces the hair shaft and is surface epidermis that dips down to the dermis to form the follicle. At the base is the hair papilla of the dermis
hair medulla
The very core of the hair shaft beneath the cuticle and the hair cortex
hooves
enlarged keratinized plates on the tips of the ungulate digits-consists of hoof wall, sole and frog; grows outward from the bed of proliferating matrix cells at its base
hypodermis
separates the integument from the deep body musculature; transitional subcutaneous region made of very loose connective tissue and adipose tissue; also known as the superficial fascia
iridophore
contains light-reflecting crystalline guanine platelets and is a type of chromatophore. Found in ectothermic vertebrates and the iris of eyes of birds
keratin
fibrous protein; accumulates as the outer layer of the epidermis in terrestrial vertebrates. Produced by keratinocytes through keratinization and is a nonliving layer that serves to reduce water loss through the skin
keratinized/cornified
layer of cells, also known as the stratum corneum, that are a nonliving layer that serves to reduce water loss through the skin in terrestrial environments; also occur with friction or direct mechanical abrasion
lactation
The release of milk from mammary glands to suckling young
leydig cells
secrete substances that resist entry of bacteria or viruses-now absent in the epidermis, but sometimes found in specific parts
mammary glands
Type of sweat gland that produces milk, a watery mixture of fats, carbs and proteins that nourish the young. Found primarily in females
meibomian glands
sebaceous glands; type of gland found in the eyelid that secretes an oily film over the surface of the eyeball
melanophore
type of chromatophore that contains pigment melanin; housed in melanosomes that intercept sunlight striking the surface of the animal to prevent harmful radiation from penetrating
molting/ecdysis
shedding of the cornified layer which results in removal of extensive sections of the superficial epidermis-found in lizards but primarily in snakes
mucous gland
an organ secreting a protein-rich mucin that is usually a thick fluid
nail
tightly compacted cornified epithelial cells on the surface of fingers and toes; products of the keratinizing system and have a nail matrix that forms the new nail at the base; protects against inadvertent mechanical injury and stabilizes the skin
nipple
raised epidermal papilla that opens to the surface. Mammary glands consist of lobules that are a cluster of secretory alveoli in which milk is produced and then they open into a comoon duct that goes to the surface through the nipple.
osteoderms
a dermal bone located under and supporting an epidermal scale
papillary layer
Part of the mammalian dermis-pushes fingerlike projections called dermal papillae into the epidermis
placoid scales
Found in chondrichtyes where no dermal bone is present; give rough feel to the skin and favorably affect water across the skin to reduce friction; develops in the dermis but projects through the epidermis to reach the surface; a cap of enamel forms at the tip, dentin lies beneath, and pulp cavity lies within
plastron
ventral part of the shell of a turtle, composed of fused dermal bones along the belly; covered with keratiniazed plates of epidermis over the bone
plies
distinct layers made of woven collagen fibers in the dermis
poison glands
Found in amphibians, type of multicellular gland that is found in the dermis and open to the surface through connecting ducts; tned to be larger and contain secretions within lumen of each gland
pterylae
feathers are laid out along these distinctive tracts that are on the surface of the body
feathers are nonvascular and nonnervous products of the skin
quills
course hairs specialized for defense
rachis
The feather grows out in a sheathed case of which this is the central axis
salt gland
well developed in marine birds that excrete excess salt that is obtained when bird ingest seawater-on the head of birds
scent glands
found in reptiles and some mammals; in reptiles play a role in reproductive behavior and discourage predators while in mammals play a part in social communication
scute
an epidermal scale that is large and platelike found in reptiles
sebaceous glands
produce an oily secretion called sebum that is released into hair follicles in order to condition and waterproof fur-not in palms of hands or feet
shaft
length of the hair composed of the cuticle, hair cortex, and hair medulla
subnguis
proliferating matrix cells from the subuniguis near the tip
superficial fascia
name for the hypodermis in gross anatomical dissection
sweat glands
produce watery product called perspiration recognized on the viscosity of sweat, association with hair follicles, and functional onset
underfur
stationed beneath the guard hairs and usually much finer and shorter that is primarily for insulation
unguis
name for nail, claw/talon, or hoof which is a plate of cornified epithelium growing outward from the bed of proliferating matrix cells and the subunguis
unicellular glands
single, specialized cells found in the epidermal cell population types include club cell, granular cell, goblet cell, and sacciform cell; found in the epidermis of fish
uropygial gland
located at the base of the tail in birds this gland secretes a lipid and protein product that birds collect on the sides of their beak and smear on their feathers making them water repellant
vane
characteristic of flight feathers which make the feathers aerodynamic in shape
vibrissae
type of specialized hair that have sensitive nerves associatied with their roots that are around the snouts of many animals. whiskers; common in nocturnal animals or those that live with limited light
waxglands
of the outer ear canal, produce earwax