Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/134

Click to flip

134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
pronation
hand facing down, palm back.
ex. palming a basketball
the bones of forearm cross
supination
palm facing out
ex. holding a bowl of soup
bones dont cross
anterior or ventral
front or stomach/underside
dorsal or posterior
back
superior
towards head/above
aka cranial
inferior
towards feet, below
aka caudal
distal
farther away from body
ex. hand is more distal than elbow
proximal
closer to body
ex. elbow is proximal compared to hand
lateral
farther from midline
medial
closer to midline
superficial
external
deep
internal
3 planes
median
transverse
frontal
Median
divide body into left and right
transverse
(horizontal) divide body into inferior and superior
frontal
divides body into anterior and posterior planes
sutures
where the planes of the head meet
Midsagittal
equal left and right (median)
sagittal or parasagittal
right and left portions NOT equal (median)
Coronal plane
(frontal) equal anterior and posterior halves
Transverse plane
(horizontal) superior and inferipr parts equal OR unequal
Oblique planes
diagonal
axial
head, neck, trunk
appendicular
limbs/appendages
upper limb
arm
forearm
arm
shoulder to elbow
forearm
elbow to fingers
lower limb
thigh
shin
thigh
hip to knee
shin
knee to feet
dorsal (hand)
back of hand
palmar
palm
dorsal (foot)
top of foot
plantar
sole of foot
pollex
thumb
hallux
big toe
what layer is directly on top of the organ?
Visceral
what are the two types of serous membrane?
visceral and parietal
what membrane is right inside the body wall?
parietal
What does the serous membrane do?
it secretes fluid to allow organs to rub against one another and lines all the space the organ is in
what consists of adobinal, pelvic, thoracic, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities?
ventral body cavities
Embryolgy
how we get from two cells to an adult human
Prenatal development is when?
the first 38 weeks of pregnancy
the first 8 weeks of prenatal development is called?
the embryonic period
the last 30 weeks of the prenatal period is called?
the fetal period
weeks 1 and 2 consist of what to what?
conception to zygote
the zygot implants itself in the______?
uterus
this consists of two sheets of cells and is in weeks 1 and 2 of pregnancy
the bilaminar disc
the bilaminar disc is between the ______ and _____?
amnion and yolk sac
the bilaminar disc is how big in size?
1mm ... lincolns nose on a penny
gastrulation which occurs in WEEK 3 consists of two steps what are they?
1) replace inner layer of cells with new cells
2) add middle layer of cells
There are three primary germ layers which are....
1) ectoderm
2) mesoderm
3) endoderm
the ectoderm is the _____
outer layer
the nervous system and epidermis are created by the
ectoderm
the mesoderm is the _____
middle layer
most organs, gonads, bones and muscle are created by the
mesoderm
the endoderm is the ______
inner layer
the liver and lining of the digestive organs is created by the
Endoderm
The _______ defines the body's midline
notochord
the notochord signals the ______ layer
ectoderm
the ecotoderm is signaled by the notochord and then forms the _____ _____
neural plate
Neurulation
this is when the nervous system forms from part of the ectoderm
a neural groove forms because it comes together at middle first... eventually forming the _____ ______
neural tube
neuropore superior is at ____ and inferior on ______
top
bottom
when the superior neuropore does not close this causes _____
spina bifida
when the inferior neuropore does not close this causes _____
anencephaley.... (no brain and no head covering)
Mesoderm has 3 divisions
Lateral plate, indermediate, paraxial
Lateral plate mesoderm has two parts
Splanchnic, somatic
Splanchnic mesoderm makes up what?
heart, blood, vessels, walls of organs
somatic mesoderm makes up what?
bones, joints, ligament, connective tissue
intermediate mesoderm makes up the _______ and the _______
kidneys and the gonads
Paraxial mesoderm makes what?
Somites
Somites
balls of tissue
in week 4 the ______ _______ divides into two _______s?
paraxial mesoderm, into two somites
somites are responsible for.....
nerves and feeling
in week 4 the body is a series of
somites
somites divide into 3 parts...
sclerotome
dermatome
mycotome
Sclerotome forms....
vertebrae and ribs
dermatome forms....
dermis layer of skin
Mycotome forms....
muscles of limbs and trunk
When mesoderm comes together what is formed?
the body cavity (week 4)
at the begin of week 4 the embryo is ______ and by the end is ______.
3.0 mm,
4.5 mm
WEEKS 5-8 what happens?
1)the head grows to half the size of body
2)the eyes ears and nose begin to appear
3)the tail disappears
4)beginnings of organs appear (continue to fetal period)
5) limb buds appear
in weeks 5-8 the embryo is now _____ in size?
30 mm
Tissues are what?
a group of cells of similar structure that perform a common function
Tissues are (3)
plasma membrane
cytoplasm
nucleus
4 types of tissue
epithelial
connective
muscle
nervous
Epithelial
"covering", sheet of cells lining body surface or cavity
Epithelium is good for
protection, sensation, secretion, absorption, transport, filtration of fluid
special characteristics of epithelia
cellularity
polarity
supported by connective tissue
specialized contacts (hold together)
AVASCULAR, INNERVATED
regeneration
epithelia cellularity
alot of cells, very little space
Apical surface consists of ....
microvilli and cilia
microvilli
extensions of plasma memberane, increase absorptive surface
cilia
motile, microtubules, londer than microvilli, found in trachea (etc) to move mucus
Basement membrane includes
basal lamina and reticular fibers (connective tissue)
Basal Lamina
?
Lateral surface divisions
tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions
Tight junctions are ...
just below apical surface of cell, prevent transport of certain things through epithelial cells
Desmosomes
(jelly fish looking), round shaped plaques, adhere cells to one another, creates guidelines to hold cell together and keep structure
Gap junctions
allow transport between epithelial cells (ie. ions and sugars)
Glands 2 types
endocrine
exocrine
Endocrine
secrete stuff inside the body (extracellular spaces.... blood stream) (ex hormones)
Exocrine
secrete stuff outside the body onto body surface or into a body cavity
ACT LOCALLY, mucus, sweat, salivary
types of exocrine glands
Unicellular (goblet cell), or multicellular...most are this (simple or compound)
goblet cell
wine glass looking cell ?
multicellular
epithelial lined duct
multicellular simple
1 gland, 1 duct, 1 opening
compound
multiple glands, 1 duct, 1 opnening (around hair follicles)
Connective tissue is good for.....
-support
-bind other tissue
-defend vs. infection
-store nutrients as fat (adipose)
Generic connective tissue characteristics
-cell density low (not very many)
-lots of extracellular matrix=ground substance (gel stuff) + fibers
-far apart
-
Types of connective tissue (4)
1)proper
2)cartlidge
3)bone
4)blood
Proper connective tissue makes up ....
Fat, ligaments, tendons, and stroma
ligaments do what?
bind bone to bone
tendons do what?
bind muscle to bone
stroma do what?
provide frame for organs ex. lymph nodes
1 type of proper is loose connective tissue which consists of ______ and is found ______
consists of adipose tissue (fat), and is found everywhere
reticular connective tissue are found in _________
found in localized areas with stroma and lymph
-SMALL BRANCHING COLLAGEN FIBERS
Areolar connectiv tissue
underly epithelia, line organs, has defense cells (white blood cells, mast cells, macrophages), has fibers and ground substance (extracellular matrix)
areolar connective tissue also has ______ from ______
has fiber from fibroblasts
Dense connective tissue has 3 kinds ...
Irregular, regular and elastic
Irregular dense tissue consists of what and does what?
creates dermis of skin, and forms capsules of certain joints and organs, is made of mostly collagen fibers
Regular dense tissue is only.....
only pulled in one direction
- ex. tendon, ligament, aponeuroses
elastic dense tissue is found in .....
vocal chords, trachea, bronchii, aorta
integument is...
skin
skin regulates temp becuase there are many_______
vascular structures beneath surface, fat, and blood to keep temp high
skin produces ______ ____ and ____ _____
vitamin D and folic acid
Epidermis creates_____
vitamin D
Nerve endings cause...
sensation
Skin is _____% of total body weight
7% of body weight
the skin is ____mm to ____mm thick
1.5 to 4mm thick
Epidermis is the _______, dermis is the _______, and then there is the hypodermis
ectoderm, mesoderm
Epidermis has ____ layers and ____ cell types
5 layers and 4 cell types
the epidermis is .....
keratinized,stratified squamous, epithelium
We get a new epidermis every ___ - ___ days
35-45 days we get a new one