Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cell functions
-synthesize molecules
-reproduction, division
-shape maintenience
what is metabolism?
using food energy to do work
what types of molecules could a cell synthesize?
lipids or proteins
how do cells communicate?
neurons to muscle cells, by chemical release
cell membrane
plasma membrane, made of phospholipid bilayer, hydrophilic heads made of phosphate group, hydrophobic tails made of carbon and hydrogen
proteins (integral or peripheral)
what types of molecules can diffuse directly through the membrane?
hydrophobic molecules, small nonpolar molecules (gases, urea)
water moves from a concentration of high to low through a semi permeable membrane
what will happen to a cell placed in a hypotonic solution?
the cell will swell because water will rush into the cell, because the cell has more solute.
what will happen to a cell placed in a hypertonic solution?
the cell will shrink. water will leave the cell because the solution has a high concentration of the solute.
facilitated diffusion
passive (no use of energy), receives help from transport proteins
active transport
ATP energy is used to move through membrane
mediated transfer
requires help from transport protein
transport within cell
cell eating
cell drinking
transport outside of the cell
made of cytosol, fluid portion, cytoskeleton
surrounded by nuclear envelope, home of DNA (chromatin or chromosomes), RNA is produced
synthesize proteins from amino acids, free floating or attached to rough ER
rough ER
closer to nucleus
protein synthesis and production
smooth ER
no ribosomes
lipid production
golgi apparatus
double layer of lipid bilayer
separate from ER
protein modification and distribution (packaging house)
transport vesicles
contains enzymes to digest stuff
produced by golgi
contains enzymes to break down amino acids and lipids, contain catalase
no membrane, break down proteins
has own DNA and ribosomes, inner membrane (cristae), most ATP is produced here
part of DNA that code for a protein, contain exons and introns. introns are cut out
A, C, G, T, form in 3 letter words
reading information from DNA into RNA
making protein from info in RNA
RNA polymerase
makes RNA
DNA separated into two strands, starts at promoter, makes mRNA molecule, introns are cut out (splicing), mRNA is formed
triplets of nucleotides on mRNA
start codon (AUG)
stop codons (UAA, UGA, UAG)
many "words" for the same amino acid
mRNA leave nucleus, ribosomes bind to mRNA and make proteins, anticodon recognized by tRNA, amino acids are attached as ribosome moves along mRNA
cell cycle
interphase (long)
G1- first growth
S- DNA replication
G2- second growth, preparation for division
checkpoints at G1 and G2 phases
mitosis (short)
chromosomes become visible, creates identical cells
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
cytokinesis- separation of two daughter cells
somatic cells
23 pairs of chromosomes, diploid number=46
homologous chromosomes
pairs of chromosomes, one from mother, one from father
sex cells, have 23 single chromosomes, haploid number
dominant and recessive (genotype)
features displayed by the organism
gamete production, meiosis 1 (like mitosis), meiosis 2 (no DNA replication)
what are tissues made of?
cells and extracellular matrix (non cellular substance around and between cells)
what are the 4 main types of tissues?
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
what is different about fetus tissue?
it is less specialized than adult.
what are the levels of embryonic tissues?
endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm
characteristics of epithelial tissue
made of cells with a little EC matrix
covers surfaces
has a basement membrane
avascular (no blood in tissue)
what is the difference between apical and basal surface of epithelial tissue?
apical is not attached to the body, it faces the outside world. basal surface is the BASE, on the inside.
what are the functions of epithelial tissue?
protective (skin cells), diffusion barrier (skin), transport of substances, secretion (usually glands), absorption.
different types of epithelial cells based on layers.
simple- single layer, diffusion, secretion, absorption
stratified- multiple layers, protection
pseudostratified- a single layer of taller, longer cells.
(use logic to figure out where these cells are in the body)
different types of epithelial cells based on shape of the cells.
squamous- flattened, diffusion and filtration
cuboidal- cubes, secrete and absorb
columnar- columns, secrete and absorb
transitional- change shape when stretched.
(use logic to figure out where these cells are in the body)
different types of surfaces of epithelial cells.
smooth (reduce friction)
folded (increased surface)
microvilli (increase surface)
cilia (move fluid along)
cell connections
desmosomes (between cells) provid strong attachment,
tight junctions prevent diffusion between cells,
gap junctions channel connecting cells to provide diffusion.
organs that secrete
modified epithelial tissue that functions to release chemicals
endocrine glands
secrete hormones into bloodstream, no ducts (ex. sweat), into cell
exocrine glands
have ducts (ex. spit)
out of cell
merocrine- use active transport, secrete substances as they are produced (pancreas)
apocrine- pinch off of cells (mammary glands)
holocrine- shred whole cells when cells die (sebaceous glands)
functions of connective tissue
covering and separating organs from each other, connecting between organs, support organ, protection, cushioning and insulating, transport (blood) and storage (adipose)
create it
maintain it
break it down

(ex. osteoblast- starts creating bones)
adipose cells
fat cells
mast cells
help with inflammation by releasing enzymes (heprin), immune response
white blood cells- macrophages, lymphocytes, etc.
stem cells
growing new cells by changing the environment, technological advancements
extracellular matrix (between cells)
collagen fibers- long, thick, flexible, strong
reticular fibers- small, thin, short collagen fibers
elastic fibers- elastic, stretch and return to regular form
embryonic connective tissue
2 types!
mesenchyme and mucous (umbilical cord)
adult connective tissue types
loose or areolar tissue- fills space around organs
dense- strength
adipose- fat
reticular- bone marrow
hemopoietic tissue
dense collagenous regular connective tissues
resist stretching, fibers in same direction, tendons and ligaments
hyaline cartilage
touch, fibers are rubbery between vertebrates
what are the two types of dense connective tissues?
regular (fibers in same direction)- collagenous or elastic
irregular (meshwork of fibers)
what are the 3 types of cartilage?
hyaline cartilage (smooth)
fibrocartilage (tough, rubbery)
elastic cartilage (stretch)
what is bone made of?
cells and hard extracellular matrix
where are bone cells located?
lacunae (open space)
what are the two types of bone?
cancellous or spongy (softer, lighter, not as strong, inside of bone)
compact (dense, more solid, outside of bone)
what is unique about blood tissue?
it has a liquid matrixz
hemopoietic tissue
in bone marrow
red-produces blood cells, closer to end of bone
yellow-does not produce blood ceels, fat tissue center of bone
what are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
smooth, skeletal, and cardiac
smooth muscle tissue
not striated in appearance, single nucleus per cell, deep inside body, appears smooth, may contract, many elongated cells, inside of hollow organs.
skeletal muscle tissue
striated in appearance, multiple nuclei per cell (produces more protein), voluntary/concious, responsible for body movement, muscle attached to bone
cardiac muscle tissue
striated in appearance, single nucleus per cell, involuntary, not as prominent, different way of contact, in the heart - pumps blood through body
nervous tissue - cell types
neurons (nerve cells, perform function - pain, happiness)
glial cells (don't participate in sending and receiving, mantenience cells)
neurons have...
dendrites-receive information, trees, multiple
axons-send information, one
how are membranes formed?
epithelial tissue, basement membrane, and connection tissues
what are the 3 types of membranes?
mucous, serous, synovial
mucous membranes: location and function
digestive, respiratory, reproductive tracts
release secretions, lubrication
serous membranes
cover organs and cavities
synovial membranes
cover joints
mediators of inflammation
histamine, kinins, prostagladins
what are the 5 symptoms of the inflammatory response?
redness, heat, swelling, pain, and disturbance of function - due to dilation of blood vessels
what happens to cause inflammation?
dilation of blood vessels and increased permeability of blood vessels (proteins and clotting substances migrate to injury site, water follows)
tissue repair cells
labile cells, stable cells, permanent cells
labile cells
always divide, complete regeneration possible (mucous membranes, hemopoietic tissue, skin)
stable cells
normally do not divide, but divide in response to injury (glands, connective tissues)
permanent cells
limited ability to divide, replaced by another type of cell (neurons, skeletal and cardiac muscle)
the process of repair
a clot forms. a dried clot is a scab, which seals over the infected area. neutrophils (macrophages, phagocyctic cells) move to the injury site and eat bacteria and damaged cells. neutrophils die and form pus. fibroblasts come and make extracellular matrix, begin dividing and fill the area. new blood vessels are formed. wound is filled with new connective tissue (granulation tissue). scar may be formed.
macrophages that eat bacteria
dead neutrophils
granulation tissue
new connective tissue formed after wound
germ layers create embryonic tissue
mesoderm- middle layer, muscles, bone, blood vessels
ectoderm- outer layer, skin
endoderm- inner layer, digestive tract
what is the difference between nonkeratinized or keratinized?
nonkeratinized- covered by a layer of fluid, mouth, esophagus, rectum, vagina
keratinized- found in the skin, dead cells, dry
unicellular glands
goblet cells
multicellular glands
have ducts that can be single or branched, can be tubular or have small sacs called aveoli, tubular glands can be straight or coiled.
destroy foreign antigens
ground substances
hyaluronic acid- makes fluid slippery
proteoglycan- trap water
adhesive molecules- hold proteoglycans together
shapes of nerve cells
multipolar- several D, one A
bipolar- one D, one A
unipolar- one A
what happens to tissues as we age?
reduced rates of cell division, less flexible, reduced strength, less elastic.