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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are upper motor neurons? What would one expect from a UMN lesion? Example
Cell bodies in the cerebral cortex (end in medulla or spinal cord) / spastic paralysis (hyperflexia, hypertonia) / EX: stroke
What are lower motor neurons? What would one expect from a LMN lesion? Example
Connect brain to muscle fibers. Flaccid paralysis/ areflexia, atonia, atrophy / EX: spinal cord lesion
What is root compression? What does it effect?
Dorsal (sensory loss over dermatome) OR ventral (motor deficit)
What is the general name of the true back muscles? What four muscles make it up? What is their innervation and action? Where can they be found?
Erector spinae AKA sacrospinalis. longissimus, iliocostalis, spinalis / dorsal rami of spinal nerve / spinal extension with activated bilaterally or lateral bending when unilateral / enclosed in thoracolumbar fascia (load transfer)
What bones make up the shoulder girdle?
Scapula and clavicle
What four muscles attach to the clavicle?
trapezius, sternocliedomastoid, deltoid, pectoralis major
What two things are clinically significant about the clavicle?
Commonly fractures and it is the only bone connection appendicular skeleton to axial skeleton in shoulder
What are two clinically significant joints in the shoulder girdle?
sternoclavicular - only connection between appendicular and axial skeleton
acromioclavicular - may be injured in throwing athletes or falling on outstretched arm (unstable joint)
Strain on what part of the lower back often causes lower back pain?
Thoracolumbar fascia
What is clinically important about the proximal humerus?
It is shallow but stabilized by muscles and tendons of the rotator cuff
What articulation is found at the proximal humerus?
glenohumeral joint
What is the glenoid labrum? What muscle inserts at it? What is its clinical significance?
fibrocartilagenous, long head of biceps, it has a poor bloody supply and can be injured in overhead throwing.
Trapezius - innervation, action, attachment
Spinal accessory nerve XI / elevation and depression of scapula (depending on fibers active) assists in retraction of scapula, assists in abduction. Attach to spine, clavicle and acromion process. Test by shrugging shoulders.
Latissimus Dorsi - innervation and action
thoracodorsal nerve / extension adduction and medial rotation of humerus. Bicipital groove (ntertubercular groove)
Deltoid - innervation, action, attachment
What three bones are involved?
Axillary nerve / humeral flexion and medial rotation (anterior), extension and lateral rotation(posterior), and abduction. acromion process and clavicle. Humerus, clavicle, and scapula.
Rhomboid major and minor - innervation, action, attachment
Dorsal scapular nerve (C5), scapular retraction, medial border
Levator scapulae - innervation, action, attachment
Dorsal scap nerve (c5), elevation of scapula, rotation of glenoid inferiorly, superior angle
Serratus anterior - innervation, action, attachment, clinical significance of nerve?
long thoracic nerve, protractio of scapula and fixes scapula to thoracic wall, inferior angle. Opposing muscle is rambod. (Nerve can be damaged)
Teres major - innervation, action. attachment, assistant to what muscle?
subscapular nerve, adduction and medial rotation of humerus (assistant to latissimus dorsi), bicipital groove of humerus and inferior angle of scapula, assistant to latissimus dorsi
What four muscles make up the rotator cuff?
supraspinatus, infraspinatious, teres minor, subscapularis
Supraspinatus - innervation, action, attachment
suprascapular nerve, initiates abduction (assists deltoid), holds humerus in glenoid, greater tubercle of humerus
Infraspinatus - innervation, action, attachment
suprascapular nerve, lateral rotation humerus, holds humerus in glenoid,greater tubercle of humerus
Teres minor - innervation, action, attachment
axillary nerve, lateral rotation humerus, holds humerus in glenoid, lateral border of scapula and greater tubercle of humerus
Subscapularis - innervation, action, attachment
Subscapular nerve, medial rotation of humerus, holds humerus in glenoid. lesser tubercle
What are three ligaments that serve to strengthen the shoulder joint? Where are their two points of attachment?
Coracohumeral ligament (greater tubercle <> just under rc) , coracoclavicular ligament (trapezoid <> conoid) , coracoacromial ligament (subacromial arch)
What is the quadrangular space? What nerve does it contain?
Space made up by borders of teres major, long head of biceps, teres minor, and humerus. Contains axillary nerve.
What structure passes through the scapular notch?
suprascapular nerve and artery